The Taipei Times bilingual pages are having a makeover, with professionally curated content for both English and Chinese learners of all levels. With our new partners Ivy English, English OK and others, Taipei Times readers can improve their language studies while keeping abreast of important issues in Taiwan and abroad. A new departure for us is the addition of a Chinese-language learning module, with content provided by the National Taiwan Normal University “Mandarin Training Center.” 《台北時報》雙語版最優質的中英文內容，多年來一向受到讀者們的喜愛。近日起版面全新升級！每週和《常春藤解析英語》、《English OK中學英閱誌》……等專業英語機構合作，提供豐富多元且實用的英語學習內容，不但適合各種程度學生及上班族自修，老師、家長用它當教材也超便利。原先頗受歡迎的雙語新聞則予以保留，持續帶領大家了解國內外之重要議題。 而此次改版除了英語學習以外，本報特別和台灣師範大學「國語教學中心」聯手，為外國讀者們推出華語學習單元，打造最強全方位中英文雙語版，精彩內容在網站上也看的到唷！
The ‘Barnum effect:’ A common cognitive bias 覺得星座運勢很準？「巴納姆效應」在作祟
Have you ever read your horoscope and thought the predictions were extraordinarily accurate? If so, you’ve experienced the “Barnum effect,” also called the “Forer effect.” This psychological phenomenon refers to the tendency of people to believe that vague, general statements are specific descriptions of themselves. The Barnum effect works exceptionally well for positive statements, as most people’s egos enjoy praise and reject criticism. It’s named after American businessman P.T. Barnum, who’s strongly associated with the phrase, “There’s a sucker born every minute.” This declaration conveys humans’ gullible nature and desire to believe the good things they’re told about themselves. This common cognitive bias was demonstrated through an experiment conducted by American professor Bertram R. Forer in 1948. His students completed individual personality surveys and were told that they would be analyzed and custom feedback would be returned. Most students evaluated the feedback quality as very accurate. However, Forer had given each student the exact same results! General statements like: “You have a great need for people to like and admire you” and “You have a tendency to be critical of yourself” applied to almost everyone. We’re used to identifying universally valid statements in astrology and fortune telling, but where else can we see the Barnum effect? Digital platforms like Netflix and Spotify generate content recommendations on our profile. These are partly based on our user history, but they’re also general lists suggested for many users at the same time. However, we’re more likely to consume content when we think it’s personally selected for us! To avoid being deceived by the Barnum effect, be aware that it’s happening and stay skeptical. Look for specific statements, not general ones. While being fooled may sometimes be harmless, avoiding being manipulated by the Barnum effect can help prevent us from making decisions that may not be rational
Taiwan’s central bank increased its benchmark interest rate by a modest amount on Thursday last week, the third hike this year, as it tries to battle inflation without further weighing down its slowing economy. The central bank raised its policy rate by 12.5 basis points to 1.625 percent, in line with forecasts of most economists surveyed by Bloomberg. The bank also raised its reserve requirement ratios by 0.25 percentage points. The central bank’s decision came hours after the US Federal Reserve hiked interest rates by 75 basis points, the fifth increase this year, to tame rampant inflation. Taiwan’s policy makers have been able to be more flexible in their rate hikes, with inflation peaking in the second quarter amid a slowdown in the economy. The central bank raises its rate by a smaller-than-expected 12.5 basis points in June and by 25 basis points in March. Higher interest rates may help to bolster Taiwan’s dollar, which has slumped this year on the back of a stronger US currency, weaker export demand and rising geopolitical tensions. The local dollar was down 4.8 percent against the greenback in the past month, the third-worst performer among Asian currencies. Taiwanese officials have sought to balance tempering inflation without hurting its economy, which has been weighed down by sluggish demand from China, the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on supply chains, and other global headwinds. The government has already cut its 2022 growth forecast twice this year to 3.76 percent. “Taiwan’s economic slowdown is very apparent, with export growth only in the single digits and manufacturing PMI shrinking,” Ma Tieying, an economist at DBS Group Holdings Ltd, said before the rate decision. “The risk of Taiwan’s economic downturn is very high, so from this point of view, increasing by 12.5 basis points is a compromise option and the best option.” Economists surveyed by
對話 Dialogues 玉玲：立夫，我有兩張演唱會的票，要不要一起去看？ 立夫：誰的演唱會？ 玉玲：阿宏的。聽說他唱得不錯。 立夫：好啊！是什麼時候的票呢？ 玉玲：一月十五號，下個星期六。 立夫：可是那天我表哥要來台灣，我得去飛機場接他。 Yuling: Lifu, I have two tickets to a choir concert. Would you like to go with me? Lifu: Whose concert is it? Yuling: A-Hong’s. People say his singing is not bad. Lifu: I’d love to go! When is the performance? Yuling: Jan. 15, next Saturday. Lifu: But my cousin is coming to Taiwan. I have to go to the airport to pick him up. 詞彙與短語 Vocabulary & Phrase 演唱會 (yǎnchànghuì) concert (singing) 一起 (yì qǐ) together 聽說 (tīngshuō) “It is said” / “People say” / “I have heard” 下 (xià) next 得 (děi) have to, ought to, should 教材音檔 Audio Files 本文內容及音檔來源: 華語簡易通 For more audio files, visit the center’s Web site at: http://mtc.ntnu.edu.tw/book/book-show-6.html 國立臺灣師範大學國語教學中心提供 Provided by NTNU Mandarin Training Center: http://www.mtc.ntnu.edu.tw/ COPYRIGHT c 2022 國立臺灣師範大學國語教學中心 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Most of us know someone great at telling jokes. It takes exceptional talent, however, to become a successful stand-up comedian. These people stand up on stage with just a microphone and try their hardest to get as many __1__ from the audience as possible. In countries like the US and the UK, top stand-up comedians are among the best-known celebrities. Most focus on a specific type of comedy in their act. One of the most common is observational comedy, __2__ jokes are made about aspects of everyday life. Another is political satire, which makes fun of people in politics. Early versions of stand-up comedy date back to the 19th century. However, the style that people are familiar with today — one person standing before an audience telling jokes— started __3__ in the 1930s. In the 1970s and 1980s, special comedy clubs like The Laugh Factory and the Comedy Cellar began appearing in cities. As early as the 1960s, however, stand-up comedians had been performing regularly on late-night television talk shows, such as The Tonight Show. This development was __4__ in introducing stand-up comedy to a much wider audience, enabling people who had never seen a live show to enjoy this unique form of entertainment. These days, it’s common for performers to have their act filmed and __5__ on video streaming services. And while stand-up comedy, like jazz and rock music, is primarily an American art form, other countries and cultures have warmly embraced it. 我們大多數人都認識某個擅長講笑話的人。然而，要成為一名成功的單口喜劇演員，需要非凡的才能。這些人站在只有一支麥克風的舞臺上，卯足全力地想從觀眾席中得到愈多笑聲愈好。 在美國和英國等國家，頂尖的單口喜劇演員也都是名聲非常響亮的名人。大多數人的表演專注於特定類型的喜劇。最常見的喜劇之一是觀察型喜劇，其中的笑話是關於日常生活的各個層面。另一種是開政治人物玩笑的政治諷刺。 單口喜劇的早期版本可以追溯到十九世紀。然而，現今人們熟悉的風格──一個人站在觀眾面前講笑話──在1930年代開始漸受歡迎。在1970年代和1980年代，像笑匠工廠和喜劇酒窖這樣的特殊喜劇俱樂部開始在城市中出現。 然而，早在1960年代，單口喜劇演員就經常在深夜的電視脫口秀節目（如《今夜秀》）中表演。這一發展在把單口喜劇介紹給更廣泛的觀眾上很有影響力，能讓從未看過現場表演的人享受這種獨特的娛樂形式。 如今，表演者通常會錄下他們的表演，並發表在影音串流服務上。雖然單口喜劇像爵士樂和搖滾樂一樣，主要是美國的一種藝術形式，但其他國家和文化已經熱情地接受了它。 What Did You Learn? 1. (A) tears (B) laughs (C) signs (D) frowns 2. (A) when (B) how (C) why (D) where 3. (A) building confidence (B) causing offense (C)
網球天王費德勒（Roger Federer）於上週四（15日）宣布引退，為長達二十四年的職業生涯畫下了句點。回顧過去，他曾經贏得二十個大滿貫冠軍，與對手喬克維奇、納達爾合稱「網壇三巨頭」，如今這名年屆四十一歲的傳奇即將引退，令許多球迷感到不捨。今天就讓我們從他的引退宣言，來學TOEIC測驗的常考英文吧！ acknowledge 認可、承認 費德勒在Twitter上發聲明宣布退休，其中一段這樣感謝他的團隊： I really want to thank and acknowledge my amazing team. . . who have given me the best advice and have always been there for me. （我真的想要感謝和認可我優秀的團隊…，你們給予我最棒的建議，且一直陪伴著我。） acknowledge解釋為「認可」，單字來自於knowledge「知識」，字首「ac-」有「朝向某方向」的意思，代表come to understand or recognize 的意思，因此就是「認可、承認」。 acknowledge 後面加上動名詞，表達「承認做了」某件事情。動詞後面加上動名詞表達已經做了某件事情，其他常見動詞還有forget。forget 後方加上to V 則表達忘記做某件事情。 She acknowledged having been at fault.（她承認自己有做錯。） She forgot turning on the TV.（她忘記已經開了電視。） She forgot to turn on the TV.（她忘記要開電視了。） acknowledge + that acknowledge 加上 that 名詞子句的用法，則代表「承認」某件事情。 She acknowledged that she had been at fault.（她承認自己有過錯。） All I want is some acknowledgment that his behavior is unreasonable. （我只要你們承認他的行為是無理取鬧就好。） 名詞變化acknowledgment 則是去掉 e 並在字尾加上「-ment 」。 We sent her a copy of the book in acknowledgment of her part in its creation. （我們寄給她一本書，以感謝她為這本書的問世所做的貢獻。） 片語in acknowledgement of代表「認可某件事情」，除了動詞加上受詞的用法，也可以採用名詞變化。若用動詞改寫則是We sent her a copy of the book to acknowledge her part in its creation. loyal 忠誠的、royal 皇室的 I want to thank my loyal sponsors, who are really like partners to me; and the hard-working teams and tournaments on the ATP Tour. (我想要感謝忠誠的贊助商，你們真的就像是我的夥伴，以及ATP 巡迴賽事中勤奮不懈的團隊。） loyal sponsors 解釋為「忠誠的贊助商」。loyal (a) 是「忠誠的」，注意不要和 royal「皇室的」搞混。名詞變化是在字尾加上「-ty」成為loyalty，是常見的名詞字尾變化，其他相同用法還有certain、certainty「確認、絕對」；cruel、cruelty「殘酷」、honest、honesty「誠實」。 Jack has been a loyal worker in this company for almost 50 years. （傑克是這間公司忠誠的員工，已經工作了快五十年了。） 若要表達對某人忠誠，則可使用介系詞to 加上忠誠的對象。 He’s very loyal to his friends.（他對朋友非常忠誠。） sponsor 贊助 sponsor (v) 是「贊助」的意思，當名詞時則解釋為「贊助商」，屬於動詞／名詞同型的單字。 The team is sponsored by JVC, so the players wear the letters JVC on their shirts. （該隊是由JVC公司所贊助，所以隊員們的襯衫上都有JVC的字母。） I have over 50 sponsors for next week’s race.（我下周的比賽有超過五十個贊助商。） 另外一個名詞變化sponsorship則是較抽象的概念，指的是「贊助的行為或狀態」，例如brands sponsorship of sports events（體育賽事的品牌贊助）。另外也有「贊助費」的意思，in 加上sponsorship 則表達「從…得到贊助費」。 The orchestra receives ￡2 million a year in sponsorship from companies. （該樂團每年從這些公司獲得兩百萬英鎊的贊助費。） 【多益模擬試題】 1. The guest speaker highlighted some ideas for ________ introducing change in the workplace. (A) success (B) succeed (C) succeeding (D) successfully 2. Conference participants interested in industrial development should ________ schedule a visit to Bridgeville’s factories. (A) practically (B) definitely (C) recently (D) fortunately 3. The gift shop in the hotel lobby specializes in handcrafted gift items, each one of them unique and ________. (A) memory (B) memorize (C) memories (D) memorable 【解析】 1. 正解為(D)。語意為「這名客座演講者標明了一些要成功引進職場變革的想法。」本題要考副詞修飾動詞的文法，動詞introduce前面要加上副詞，表達「成功引進」的概念，故(D) successfully為正確答案。 2. 正解為(B)。語意為「對工業發展感興趣的與會者，一定要安排參觀 Bridgeville工廠。」本題是文法題，答案要選副詞，修飾後面動詞 schedule，(A)幾乎，(C)最近，(D)很幸運地。definitely schedule「絕對要 安排」符合句意，故(B)為正確答案。 3. 正解為(D)。語意為「位於飯店大廳的禮品店專賣手工品，每個都很獨特和令人難忘。」本題要考對等連接詞and的用法，空格前後接的詞彙必須詞性相同，因為unique為形容詞，後方也要搭配形容詞，故(D)「難忘的」為正確答案。 SOURCE: https://www.englishok.com.tw/toeic/toeic-issue/roger-federer-retire
This is a language center’s announcement about the results of an English test. 這是某語言中心英文測驗結果的公告。 In the English test last week, 10 students scored 90 or higher. Most students scored between 60 and 89 this time. Only 5 students failed the test. So they need to take it again next week! 必備單字 1. fail v. n. 失敗、不及格 （國中基本1200字） 2. score v. 得分、得勝 n. 分數、成績 （國中挑戰800字） 實用字詞 1. between A and B 在A和B之間 2. fail the test 考試不及格 閱讀技巧： 將長句分成短字詞，以利閱讀 In the English test／last week,／10 students／scored 90 or higher. 關於英文考試／上週的，／十位學生／得分90以上。 斷句練習： So they need to take it again next week! 解答： 動手做做看：將長句分成短字詞 So they need to／take it again／next week ! 所以他們需要／重考一次／下週！ 考題練習： TOEIC Bridge測驗 X 國中會考題型 1. When was the English test? (A) Last month (B) Last week (C) Yesterday 2. How many students scored 90 and above? (A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 30 3. How many students need to take the test again? (A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 30. 解答: 1. (B) 2. (B) 3. (A) 文章由 English OK 授權使用: www.englishok.com.tw
A: Chunghwa Post is using drones to deliver parcels. This should save loads of time. B: Delivering a parcel from Jianshih Township Office to Smangus normally takes 100 minutes by road. A drone can do it in just 45. A: That’s super convenient! B: With drones becoming more common, the government has amended the Civil Aviation Act to require large drones to be registered. A: How many drones have been registered to date? B: Nearly 80,000 in Taiwan, since the act was amended 2 years ago. A: 郵局用無人機來送貨，應該能節省不少時間。 B: 從尖石鄉公所送貨到新光部落，原本一百分鐘的車程，無人機只需要四十五分鐘。 A: 真的超方便耶！ B: 不過無人機越來越多，政府特別修改《民用航空法》，所有大型無人機都要註冊管理。 A: 有很多無人機註冊嗎？ B: 修法兩年以來，台灣已經有將近八萬架註冊囉。 （Translated by Edward Jones, Taipei Times／台北時報張聖恩）
A: Wow, look at that drone in the sky! B: Drones have become increasingly common in recent years. Walmart, Amazon and other companies have all begun promoting drone delivery services. A: Chunghwa Post is also providing this service. B: Really? A: Currently, Hsinchu County’s Jianshih Township post office is trialing parcel delivery to remote villages by unmanned aerial vehicles. B: That’s fantastic. It will make it much more convenient to post things to mountainous areas. A: 哇你看，天空中有一架無人機！ B: 這幾年無人機好像越來越普遍，沃爾瑪、亞馬遜等公司，都開始推出了無人機送貨服務。 A: 其實中華郵政也有這項服務唷。 B: 真的嗎？ A: 新竹縣尖石鄉的郵局，正在試辦無人機偏鄉物流運送。 B: 太棒了，以後寄東西到山區就方便多啦。 （Translated by Edward Jones, Taipei Times／台北時報張聖恩）
Teams of scientists around the world have recently demonstrated the viability of airborne and waterborne DNA collection. The methods, which permit the analysis of large samples of soil, air or water for genetic material, rely on the concept of environmental DNA. This “eDNA” is found in the innumerable particles of biological matter that creatures shed as they go about their lives. While these tiny scraps are invisible to the naked eye, eDNA tests can reveal a wealth of information to researchers. For example, wildlife managers in the Susquehanna River system in Pennsylvania, US detected Didymosphenia geminata DNA through eDNA testing. This slimy species of algae, often called by the disgusting but apt name of “rock snot,” disrupts ecosystems to which it is introduced. However, because scientists caught it early, the rock snot was contained to just one area of the river instead of spreading and leading to a wide-ranging ecological breakdown. In another usage of eDNA testing, researchers from the Hong Kong University Conservation Forensics laboratory tested eDNA collection and analysis methods at a seafood market. They pulled water samples from the drainage systems and identified 144 species, three of which were protected at an international level. While vendors may not have wished to answer questions from law enforcement about their wares, the eDNA from their stalls told the university forensics team everything they needed to know. Though it seems like science fiction that a test of the air or water in an environment could tell us so much, it’s a widely applicable tool. Even better, the more commonplace this tool becomes, the more uses scientists will find for it! 世界各地的科學家團隊最近證明了採集在空氣與水流中的DNA的可行性。這些方法仰賴於環境DNA的概念，能夠分析大量土壤、空氣或水中遺傳物質的樣本。 當生物持續存活，這種「環境DNA」就能在牠們脫落的無數生物物質微粒中被發現。雖然這些微小的碎屑肉眼無法看見，但環境DNA檢測能夠向研究人員揭露大量資訊。 舉例來說，美國賓州薩斯奎哈納河流域的野生生物管理員透過環境DNA檢測偵測到雙生雙楔藻的DNA。這種黏糊糊的藻類，通常被以「岩鼻涕」這種噁心但貼切的名字稱呼，它會破壞它所被引進的生態系統。然而，由於科學家們很早就注意到它，岩鼻涕因此僅被控制在河流的其中一個區域而沒有擴散並導致廣泛性的生態系統崩壞。 在環境DNA檢測的另一種用途中，香港大學鑑識保育實驗室的研究人員在海鮮市場測試了環境DNA的採集與分析方法。他們從汙水系統中抽取水中樣本並鑑定出一百四十四種物種，其中三種為受到國際等級保護的物種。雖然攤商可能不想回答執法人員詢問關於他們貨品的問題，但他們攤位上的環境DNA告訴了大學的鑑識團隊他們需要知道的一切。 儘管一項環境中空氣或水域的檢測就可以告訴我們這麼多東西看似科幻小說，但它已是一種能被廣泛應用的技術。更棒的是，這項技術變得越普遍，科學家就會找到越多的用途！ MORE INFORMATION viability n. 可行性 airborne adj. 在空氣中（傳播）的 waterborne adj. 在水中（傳播）的 go about 從事；做 slimy adj. 黏糊糊的 algae n. pl. 藻類 contain vt. 遏止（有害之物擴散） forensics n. 鑑識技術；法醫鑑定 drainage n.
Since the start of the pandemic, the option to “buy now, pay later’” has skyrocketed in popularity, especially among young and low-income consumers who may not have ready access to traditional credit. If you shop online for clothes or furniture, sneakers or concert tickets, you’ve seen the option at checkout to break the cost into smaller installments over time. Companies like Afterpay, Affirm, Klarna, and Paypal all offer the service, with Apple due to enter the market later this year. But with economic instability rising, so are delinquencies. Here is what you should know: HOW DOES BUY NOW, PAY LATER WORK? Branded as “interest-free loans,” buy now, pay later services require you to download an app, link a bank account or debit or credit card, and sign up to pay in weekly or monthly installments. Scheduled payments are then automatically deducted from your account or charged to your card. The services generally don’t charge you more than you would have paid up front, meaning there’s technically no interest, so long as you make the payments on time. But if you pay late, you may be subject to a flat fee or a fee calculated as a percentage of the total you owe. If you miss multiple payments, you may be shut out from using the service in the future, and the delinquency could hurt your credit score. ARE MY PURCHASES PROTECTED? In the US, buy now, pay later services are not currently covered by the Truth in Lending Act, which regulates credit cards and other types of loans (those paid back in more than four installments). That means you could find it more difficult to settle disputes with merchants, return items, or get your money back in cases of fraud. Companies can offer protections, but they don’t have to. WHY DO RETAILERS OFFER BUY NOW, PAY LATER?
情境對話 Situational Dialogues 美英：你會說很多種語言，是不是？ 大為：我只會說英文、日文和一點兒中文。 美英：真厲害。我想學英文，你能教我嗎？ 大為：可以啊！你什麼時候有空？ 美英：星期一或是星期五晚上，我都有空。 大為：好。那，我們星期五上課，怎麼樣？ 美英：太好了，謝謝。 Meiying: You speak many languages, don’t you? Dawei: I only speak English, Japanese and a little Chinese. Meiying: That’s awesome. I want to learn English. Can you teach me? Dawei: Yes! When are you free? Meiying: I’m free on Monday or Friday night. Dawei: Good. Well, how about we have class on Friday? Meiying: Great, thank you. 生詞表 Vocabulary 語言 (yǔyán) language(s) 只 (zhǐ) only 真 (zhēn) really 厲害 (lìhài) severe, terrible, efficient and cruel 教 (jiāo) to teach Get To Know Taiwan 生活小補帖 Chinese New Year In southern China, one of the favorite and most typical dishes is Niangao, sweet steamed glutinous rice pudding, which represents promotion year by year. 另外，每個家庭也都有年糕，而年糕象徵著「年年高陞」的意思。 教材音檔 Audio Files 本文內容及音檔來源: 華語簡易通 For more audio files, visit the center’s Web site at: http://mtc.ntnu.edu.tw/book/book-show-6.html 國立臺灣師範大學國語教學中心提供 Provided by NTNU Mandarin Training Center: http://www.mtc.ntnu.edu.tw/ COPYRIGHT c 2022 國立臺灣師範大學國語教學中心 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Typhoons are large tropical storms made up of rain and high-velocity winds. They originate in the Northwest Pacific and often travel westward toward Asia. Taiwan is sometimes hit by typhoons, which can cause landslides on mountain slopes and damage to homes. But how exactly do they form? The first requirement for a typhoon to form is that an area of water on the ocean’s surface needs to be above 26°C. This water will originate in the tropics or subtropics. The warm water evaporates, creating warm and moist air above it. The moisture is light and moves upward. It then makes contact with cold air and forms clouds. When the warm air rises, air from surrounding areas rushes in to take its place. The warm water makes the “new” air become warm and humid. The air then moves upward in a spiraling motion and forms more clouds. More air pushes into the area to fill a “deficit” of air near the surface. This process continues, and the storm gets bigger and stronger. A space of clear weather forms in the center as the storm rotates faster and faster. This is known as the eye of the storm. The weather within the eye is peaceful, while the eyewall directly surrounding it is the fiercest. This process of air being “fed” into the tropical storm by warm ocean water continues while wind speeds increase. When wind speeds reach 119 kilometers per hour, the storm is classified as a typhoon. Typhoons weaken as they hit land since they can no longer draw energy from the ocean. Typhoons are called by different names, depending on where they originate. For example, in the Northeast Pacific and the northern half of the Atlantic Ocean, they are known as hurricanes, while in the Southern Hemisphere, they are called tropical cyclones. 颱風是由雨水和高速的風組成的大型熱帶風暴。颱風起源於西北太平洋，通常向西往亞洲移動。台灣有時會受到颱風侵襲，可能導致山坡地坍方以及造成房屋損壞。但颱風究竟是如何形成的呢？ 形成颱風的第一個條件是︰海洋表面的某個水域溫度需要高於攝氏二十六度。這個水域總是起源於熱帶或亞熱帶。溫暖的水蒸發，在上方形成溫暖潮溼的空氣。那團溼氣很輕，會向上移動。接著其與冷空氣接觸並形成雲朵。 暖空氣上升時，來自周遭的空氣會湧入來取代其位置。溫暖的水使「新」空氣變得溫暖潮溼。接著那團空氣以螺旋狀向上移動並形成更多雲朵。更多空氣向該區域推進，填補水面附近的空氣「不足」。這個過程持續進行，風暴就變得愈大、愈強。 隨著風暴的旋轉愈來愈快，中心形成了一個有著晴朗天氣的空間。這被稱為颱風眼。颱風眼內的天氣平靜，而直接包圍著颱風眼的眼牆天氣則是最猛烈的。由溫暖海水將空氣「餵」給熱帶風暴的這個過程持續進行，與此同時風速增加了。當風速達到每小時一百一十九公里時，風暴即被歸類作颱風。颱風登陸時會減弱，因其不能再從海洋中汲取能量。 颱風有不同的名稱，取決於它們的起源地。例如，在東北太平洋和北大西洋的颱風被稱為「颶風」，而在南半球的颱風叫作「熱帶氣旋」。 What Did You
新首相上任、女王辭世、通膨失控…近日英國不斷登上國際版面。今年夏天，英國疫情退去，隨即而來的是飆漲的物價和急速上升的生活成本，又是有生以來最嚴酷的夏天，英國人無奈和不滿的情緒，隨著夏日的氣溫逐步高漲，引發各產業大罷工，被稱作「不滿之夏」（summer of discontent）。 經濟萎縮、通膨飆升 Amid political upheaval, an economic crisis and the potential for mass industrial action, Britain faces a problematic, and possibly pivotal, summer. （在政治動盪不安、一場經濟危機和大規模罷工行動威脅中，英國面臨了一個危機四伏，以及可能是關鍵的夏天。） an economic crisis解釋為「一場經濟危機」。economic (a)是「經濟的」意思，來自於名詞economy；另外，economics也是名詞，指的是「經濟學」，雖然字尾加上s，但不是複數型態，這類的單字是不可數名詞，因此動詞也必須選擇單數動詞。 She’s in her third year of studying economics at York University. （她在約克大學主修經濟學，目前為大學三年級。） Tourism contributes millions of pounds to the local economy. （旅遊業為當地經濟貢獻數百萬英鎊。） 另一個同樣重要的形容詞economical，意思則是cost-efficient「經濟實惠的」，也就是用低價購買到高價的物品或服務，兩個都是TOEIC測驗金融情境中經常出現的單字。 What’s the most economical way of heating this building? （要供應這棟大樓暖氣，怎樣做才是最經濟實惠的方法？） The government’s economic policies have led us into the worst recession in years. （政府的經濟政策，使我們陷入了多年來最嚴重的經濟衰退。） 經濟危機 crisis是不規則的名詞變化，代表「危機」的意思，也是TOEIC測驗常出現的單字，常見用法如an economic crisis「經濟危機」、an financial crisis「金融危機」。其複數不是加上「-s／es」等規則名詞變化，而是將字尾「-sis」改成「-ses」，變成crises。介系詞片語in crisis則是「陷入危機」。 The country’s leadership is in crisis. （該國的領導層陷入了危機。） pivotal (a)代表「關鍵的、重要的」，常見用法如a pivotal figure／role／idea「關鍵人物／角色／想法」。 pivotal來自於名詞pivot，其英文解釋為a fixed point supporting something that turns or balances，意思是「中樞、支點」，支撐一個物品的重要支柱。pivot作為動詞時有個好用的片語pivot on，也就是depend on「取決於」的意思。 The former guerrilla leader has become the pivot on which the country’s emerging political stability turns. （前游擊隊領袖成了決定該國政治局勢能否繼續穩定下去的關鍵人物。） Future deals will pivot on easing commercial conflicts. （未來的協議將取決於緩解商業衝突。） 另外，pivot作為動詞也有「轉動、扭曲」的意思。 She pivots her left foot. （她扭到了左腳。） He pivoted on his heels and headed out. （他腳跟一轉，向外走去。） 勞工是經濟的支柱 Workers across pillars of the economy have been voting for industrial action over below-inflation pay offers. （身為經濟支柱的各行業勞工，已經針對低於通膨的薪資採取罷工行動。） pillar解釋為「建築物的柱子」，並可延伸出「中流砥柱、棟樑」的意思，因此pillars of the economy就是支撐起國家經濟的各行各業，代表「經濟支柱」。 A row of reinforced concrete pillars supports the bridge. （一排鋼筋水泥柱支撐著這座橋。） Mrs Maple is a pillar of the local church. （梅波夫人是當地教會的中堅分子。） below-inflation pay offers解釋為「低於通膨的薪資」。inflation是「通膨」的意思，來自於inflate (v)，字尾加上「-ate」作為動詞變化，代表「膨脹、打氣」，因此延伸出「整體民生價格上漲」的概念，也就是「通貨膨脹」。字尾加上「-tion」是名詞變化，而「-table」則是形容詞變化，意思是「可充氣膨脹的」，通常充氣小艇或是游泳池等標籤上都會看到inflatable。 below是介系詞，意思是「在…下面」，在此代表薪資比不上通膨的速度，解釋為「通膨率之下的薪資水準」。若要表達在實際位置下面的概念，below可以跟under共用。 From the top of the skyscraper, the cars below us looked like insects. （從摩天大樓頂上往下看，下面的汽車小得像昆蟲一樣。） In 79 AD, the city of Pompei was buried under a layer of ash 7m deep. （西元79年，龐貝古城被湮沒在七米深的火山灰下。） She has three people working below her. （她有三名下屬。） 【多益模擬試題】 1. The apartments on the lower floors cost less because they are more exposed ________ dust and the noise of traffic. (A) to (B) without (C) from (D) against 2. By registering for our online payment plan, customers are authorizing the bank to ________ automatic withdrawals on the first day of every month. (A) consent (B) see (C) make (D) trust 3. Speaking ________ behalf of the vice president, Alan Lee thanked the employees for their contributions to the fund-raising project. (A) at (B) on (C) by (D) for 解析： 1. 正解為(A)。語意為「低樓層的公寓比較便宜，因為他們暴露在灰塵和交通噪音之中。」本題要考動詞expose的用法，be exposed to是「暴露在…之中」，介系詞要用to表達，故(A)為正確答案。 2. 正解為(A)。語意為「通過註冊我們的網上付費方案，客戶授權銀行在每月一號同意自動扣款。」本題要考consent的慣用語，consent automatic withdrawals「同意自動扣款」符合句意，故(A)為正確答案。 3.
Rita got a new job in Kaohsiung, and she is checking some house renting information online. 瑞塔獲得了一份位於高雄的新工作，她正在查一些網路上的租屋資訊。 必備單字 1. mountain n. 山（國中基本1200字） 2. convenient adj. 方便的（國中基本1200字） 實用字詞 1. outdoor activities 戶外活動 2. roommate 室友 3. electricity 電 4. include 包含 5. contact 聯絡 閱讀技巧： 將長句分成短字詞，以利閱讀 If you／love dogs／and need／a place to stay,／contact me! 若你／喜歡狗／又需要／一個地方住，／聯絡我！ 斷句練習： I like mountain climbing, and I would like to find a roommate who also loves outdoor activities. 解答： I like mountain climbing,／and I would like to／find a roommate／who also loves／outdoor activities. 我喜歡／爬山，／且想要／找個室友／也喜愛／戶外活動。 考題練習： TOEIC Bridge 測驗X國中會考題型 1. Rita’s office is at the center of Kaohsiung, and she likes to go to work by bus, who should she contact first? (A) Sasha (B) Ted (C) Nicol 2. How can Rita find out more info? (A) She can send an email to the Web site. (B) She can meet those people in person. (C) She can send a message first. 3. Which is true? (A) Bob likes dogs, and he also needs a place to stay. He should send messages to Nicol first. (B) Sasha is looking for a girl as her roommate. (C) Ted’s roommate doesn’t have to pay extra money for water and electricity. 解答： 1. (B) 2. (C) 3. (C) 文章由 English OK 授權使用: www.englishok.com.tw
A: In addition to “Spirited Away,” I’m a big fan of other anime by Studio Ghibli. B: “Castle in the Sky,” “Princess Mononoke” and “Howl’s Moving Castle” are also spectacular. A: I heard that Ghibli Park in Japan’s Aichi Prefecture has finally confirmed it will open to the public from Nov. 1 this year. B: Really? Do you know what the anime themes will be? A: Each of Studio Ghibli’s works will be on display, including a recreation of the food street scene from “Spirited Away,” where the little girl’s parents binge eat until they turn into pigs. B: Wow, I’m going to book a ticket right away! A: 除了《神隱少女》，我也很喜歡吉卜力其它的動畫。 B: 像是《天空之城》、《魔法公主》、《霍爾的移動城堡》，這些作品都很精彩。 A: 聽說位於日本愛知縣的吉卜力主題公園，終於確定將於今年十一月一日開園。 B: 真的嗎？會有哪些動畫主題啊？ A: 吉卜力的名作幾乎都會出現唷，像《神隱少女》中，讓少女的父母忍不住狂吃而變成豬的美食街，也將在此重現。 B: 哇，那我現在就來訂機票！ （Translated by Edward Jones, Taipei Times／台北時報張聖恩）
A: How did you spend the Mid-Autumn Festival? B: I watched a digitally remastered commemorative edition of the Japanese anime “Spirited Away.” A: I love that movie. The story of the little girl who wanders into a world ruled by spirits is so adorable. B: It was first released back in 2001, so this year is the anime’s 21st anniversary. A: It’s Studio Ghibli’s most successful work, and it won an Oscar for Best Animated Feature. B: For me, the most memorable moment from the anime is the scene where the little girl’s parents are turned into pigs, and she shouts: “Don’t get too fat, or they’ll eat you!” A: 你的中秋節過得如何？ B: 我去看了《神隱少女》數位紀念版。 A: 我很喜歡這部電影耶，劇中那位誤闖神靈世界的少女好可愛。 B: 這部動畫在二○○一年首映，今年已是二十一週年。 A: 它也是「吉卜力工作室」最成功的作品唷，更曾榮獲奧斯卡最佳動畫片獎。 B: 少女還對變成豬的父母大喊︰「不能吃太胖哦，太胖會被殺掉的！」真是令人印象深刻。 （Translated by Edward Jones, Taipei Times／台北時報張聖恩）
The pursuit of a good night’s sleep has preoccupied most people at one point or another. For those who suffer from insomnia, it’s a more acute concern than for others who just hope to fight off afternoon fatigue. A historian named Roger Ekirch has good news for both camps, though: human sleep has changed over time. While researching a book about nighttime, he stumbled across court records referencing “first sleep.” Through extensive searching of these records and other official documents, as well as popular literature and songs of the past, he learned that humans in the pre-industrial world tended to sleep for a few hours once night fell and then wake up for approximately an hour before returning to sleep. Biphasic sleep, as the process is called, appears to have been widespread. Ekirch found references to the phenomenon across Europe, as well as in accounts from South America and the Middle East. The period in between rests was a time for duty or reflection, depending on one’ s means. Peasants would check on their animals, while nobles might read or write until sleep overtook them again. Biphasic sleep was known as far back as ancient Greece, based on a reference in the renowned poem The Odyssey. However, it faded as the Industrial Revolution took hold. Not only did artificial lighting begin to spread, but attitudes toward sleep also changed. When people were sleeping, they couldn’t be exploited in factories, so sleeping “too much” provoked accusations of laziness and time-wasting. Today, we must be alert to the false belief that waking up early guarantees productivity, and that waking up in the middle of the night condemns you to exhaustion. When insomnia strikes, comfort yourself with the thought that you’re in touch with ancient human practices for the night, and occupy yourself quietly
Queen Elizabeth, Britain’s monarch for more than seven decades, died on Thursday last week aged 96. The following is an explanation of the rules of the British court regarding the accession of a new sovereign and a description of the powers and responsibilities of the monarch. Under the British constitution, a sovereign succeeds to the throne the moment his or her predecessor dies, before even being proclaimed to the people, and there is no interregnum.The new monarch is officially proclaimed king or queen by a special body called the Accession Council, to which members of the Privy Council — a group of several hundred selected royal advisers including members of the cabinet — are summoned. A full Privy Council session is only called on the accession of a new sovereign or when the monarch announces an intention to marry, an event of great importance given the hereditary basis of the monarchy. Also invited to attend the Accession Council which proclaims the new sovereign are the Lords Spiritual and Temporal (that is bishops of the Church of England who sit in the House of Lords, together with the secular peers of the realm) and high commissioners from Commonwealth nations. The sovereign’s coronation, in effect just a formal ratification procedure, follows the accession after an interval of mourning. Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in June 1953, 16 months after George VI died. The coronation takes place at London’s Westminster Abbey in the presence of politicians, eminent public figures, and representatives from countries around the world. The sovereign reigns by grace of the 1701 Act of Settlement, which lays down the rules of succession, decreeing that only Protestant descendants of a granddaughter of James I of England (Princess Sophia the Electress of Hanover) can take the throne. Until a new law in 2013, being married to a Roman Catholic also barred
對話 Dialogues 大為：老闆，你們賣的是什麼？ 老闆：月餅。因為這個週末是中秋節。 大為：你們中秋節都吃月餅嗎？ 老闆：是啊！在台灣中秋節，我們吃月餅。 大為：那，我買兩個，哪種好吃？ 老闆：都好吃。 大為：好。這兩種，我各買一個。 Dawei: Boss, what are you selling? Boss: Mooncakes. This weekend is Mid-Autumn Festival. Dawei: Do you all eat mooncakes on Mid-Autumn Festival? Boss: Yes! On Mid-Autumn Festival in Taiwan, we eat mooncakes. Dawei: Well, I’ll buy two. Which one is delicious? Boss: It’s all delicious. Dawei: Good. I’ll buy one of each of these two. 生詞表 Vocabulary 賣 (mài) to sell 月餅 (yuè bǐng) mooncake (shaped like the moon) 因為 (yīnwèi) because, because of 週末 (zhōumò) weekend 中秋節(zhōng qiū jié) Mid-Autumn Festival / Moon Festival Get To Know Taiwan 生活小補帖 Chinese New Year 中國人在農曆新年的前夕，全家會在一起吃一頓豐盛的年夜飯。餐桌上通常有魚，可是不能把它吃完，因為這樣才能象徵「年年有餘」。 New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day are celebrated as a family affair, a time of reunion. Meals celebrated on New Year’s Eve include several special dishes, including a whole fish, to represent togetherness and abundance. Traditionally, part of the fish is left uneaten and the leftover means the family will have “enough to spare” and “accumulation of fortune year by year.” 教材音檔 Audio Files 本文內容及音檔來源: 華語簡易通 For more audio files, visit the center’s Web site at: http://mtc.ntnu.edu.tw/book/book-show-6.html 國立臺灣師範大學國語教學中心提供 Provided by NTNU Mandarin Training Center: http://www.mtc.ntnu.edu.tw/ COPYRIGHT c 2022 國立臺灣師範大學國語教學中心 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED