When the Hong Kong school year began in September, tutor Tony Chow (周文豪) arranged to have his face plastered on the sides of double-decker buses to raise his profile.
For many of Chow’s students, the advertisements may be the closest they will ever get to him.
The 30-year-old teaches English grammar to thousands of secondary school pupils, who attend his after-school lessons or watch video replays of them at Modern Education’s 14 branches.
Chow is a celebrity tutor in Hong Kong, where there is big money to be made offering extracurricular lessons to parents desperately seeking an edge for their children preparing for the city’s intense public-entrance exam for university.
Global student rankings out last week highlighted the city’s cutthroat academic atmosphere. Hong Kong teens, along with Shanghai, Singapore, South Korea and Japan, dominated the list compiled by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. US students showed little improvement and failed to reach the top 20 in math, science or reading.
Students in East Asian societies have long relied on so-called “cram schools,” but Hong Kong has taken them to a new level in recent years, with the majority of students attending the city’s nearly 1,000 tutorial centers.
Academies use brash marketing, dressing their tutors in miniskirts and high heels or leather jackets to make them look like pop stars. Advertisements for these “tutor kings” and “tutor queens,” as they are known in Cantonese, are splashed on giant roadside billboards, on the sides of shopping malls and on the front pages of newspapers.
Many promise students they can help them ace the entrance exam.
“Basically the examination is just a game. When there’s a game there must be both winners and losers. They have to know the tricks on how to win the game,” Chow said. “We are trying to get them the shortcuts, the fast track to the answers.”
Chow and others promise, for example, that they will help students learn keywords that many believe examiners award points for when used in written answers.
Hong Kong’s tutorial industry is worth US$260 million a year, according to a report by market research firm Synovate commissioned by Modern Education’s parent company, which went public in 2011 and is one of a handful dominating the market.
The industry has made some tutors extremely wealthy. One of the best known, Richard Eng (伍經衡), is famous for his love of Lamborghinis and Louis Vuitton. He is credited with starting the transformation of Hong Kong’s tutoring industry starting in 1996 when he had the inspiration to market himself like a performer.
While Chow will not say how much he earns, the top tutors can be paid many times what a public school teacher earns. Modern Education’s highest-paid tutor earns at least HK$16 million (US$2 million) a year, according to its parent company’s latest annual report. The second-highest earned US$1.9 million and third-highest made US$1 million. Their identities were not disclosed.
The salary figures may not include marketing costs, which the schools share with the tutors, who work as contractors.
Chow says he spends thousands of dollars printing glossy exercise books he gives free to students. He split the cost of the bus ads — HK$15,000 (US$1,930) per bus — with Modern Education.
Another tutor, Karson Oten Fan Karno (范浩揚), moonlights as a rapper and is popularly known by the name K. Oten.