Climbing into his Volvo, outfitted with a Matrics antenna and a Motorola reader he had bought on eBay for US$190, Chris Paget cruised the streets of San Francisco with this objective: To read the identity cards of strangers, wirelessly, without ever leaving his car.
It took him 20 minutes to strike hacker’s gold.
Zipping past Fisherman’s Wharf, his scanner downloaded to his laptop the unique serial numbers of two pedestrians’ electronic US passport cards embedded with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. Within an hour, he’d “skimmed” four more of the new PASS Cards from a distance of 6m.
Increasingly, government officials are promoting the chipping of identity documents as a 21st century application of technology to speed up border crossings, safeguard credentials against counterfeiters and keep terrorists from sneaking into the country.
However, Paget’s February experiment demonstrated something privacy advocates had feared for years — that RFID, coupled with other technologies, means people can be tracked without their knowledge.
He filmed his heist and soon his video went viral on the Web, intensifying a debate over a push by government — federal and state — to put tracking technologies in identity documents and over their potential to erode privacy.
Putting a traceable RFID in every pocket has the potential to make everybody a blip on someone’s radar screen, critics say, and to redefine Orwellian government snooping for the digital age.
“Little Brother,” some are already calling it — even though elements of the global surveillance web they warn against exist only on drawing boards, neither available nor approved for use.
With advances in tracking technologies coming at an ever-faster rate, critics say it won’t be long before governments could be able to identify and track anyone in real time, 24/7, from a cafe in Paris to the shores of California.
On June 1, it became mandatory for US citizens entering the country by land or sea from Canada, Mexico, Bermuda and the Caribbean to present identity documents embedded with RFID tags, though conventional passports remain valid until they expire.
Among new options are the chipped “e-passport,” and the new, electronic PASS Card — credit-card sized, with the bearer’s digital photograph and a chip that can be scanned through a pocket, backpack or purse from 9m.
Alternatively, travelers can use “enhanced” driver’s licenses embedded with RFID tags now being issued in some border states: Washington, Vermont, Michigan and New York.
Texas and Arizona have entered into agreements with the federal government to offer chipped licenses, and the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has recommended expansion to non-border states. Kansas and Florida officials have received DHS briefings on the licenses, agency records showed.
The purpose of using RFID is not to identify people, said Mary Ellen Callahan, the department’s chief privacy officer, but “to verify that the identification document holds valid information about you.”
An RFID document that doubles as a US travel credential “only makes it easier to pull the right record fast enough, to make sure that the border flows and is operational” — even though a 2005 Government Accountability Office report found that government RFID readers often failed to detect travelers’ tags.