Scientists are providing a fuller understanding of the essential role that sleep plays in brain health, identifying an abrupt transition at about 2.4 years of age when its primary purpose shifts from brain building to maintenance and repair.
Researchers on Sept. 18 said they conducted a statistical analysis on data from more than 60 sleep studies. They looked at sleep time, duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, brain size and body size, and devised a mathematical model for how sleep changes during development.
There are basically two types of sleep, each tied to specific brain waves and neuronal activity. REM, with the eyes moving quickly from side to side behind closed eyelids, is deep sleep with vivid dreams. Non-REM sleep is largely dreamless.
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During REM sleep, the brain forms new neural connections by building and strengthening synapses — the junctions between nerve cells, or neurons — that enable them to communicate, reinforcing learning and consolidating memories. During sleep, the brain also repairs the modicum of daily neurological damage it typically experiences to genes and proteins within neurons as well as clearing out byproducts that build up.
At about 2.4 years of age, the findings showed, sleep’s primary function changed from building and cutting connections during REM sleep to neural repair during both REM and non-REM sleep. “It was shocking to us that this transition was like a switch and so sharp,” said Van Savage, a UCLA professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and of computational medicine who is a senior author of the research published in the journal Science Advances.
REM sleep declines with age. Newborns, who can sleep about 16 hours daily, spend about 50 percent of their sleeping time in REM, but there is a pronounced drop-off at around 2.4 years. It drops to about 25 percent by age 10 and to about 10 percent to 15 percent around age 50. “Sleep is required across the animal kingdom and is nearly as ubiquitous as eating and breathing,” Van Savage said. “I’d say it is a pillar of human health.”(Reuters)
Despite anonymous accusations and attacks online, the Rising Star Rhythmic Gymnastics Association, founded last year by Ukraine-born Taiwanese entertainer Larisa Bakurova, has won acclaim internationally. On May 2, Bakurova announced that athletes from her association won one gold, one silver and two bronze medals at this year’s Gym Kids Eastern Cup. Bakurova, who is a former rhythmic gymnast, obtained her National ID Card to become a “new Taiwanese resident” in 2019. She said her association would continue to work hard, while expressing her appreciation for the public’s support while she faced the mud-slinging. Late last month, a netizen attacked her anonymously
Just get the landlord around to take a look at it (1/5) 請房東過來看就好了（一） B: You look like you could sleep for 1,000 years. A: Tell me about it. I’m exhausted. I’ve finally moved to the new apartment. Had I known it was going to be this much mental and physical effort… B: Well, it’s done now. You can sit back and relax in your new home. A: We still haven’t unpacked everything, the apartment looks like a bomb hit it, and we’re having a few teething problems. The whole thing is really testing my patience. B: You’re just tired. Your nerves are frayed. What kind of teething problems are you having? B: 你的樣子，看起來好像一躺下去就可以睡到天荒地老。 A:
Just get the landlord around to take a look at it (3/5) 請房東過來看就好了（三） A: We also have problems with the washing machine and the extractor fan in the bathroom. B: What’s wrong with the washing machine? A: We need to change the drain cover for the outlet pipe. The drain hole has bars going across it. I can’t get the pipe in, and if it isn’t a snug fit, it will flood the floor. B: And how about the extractor fan? What’s wrong with that? A: It doesn’t exist. A: 我們的洗衣機和浴室抽風機也有問題。 B: 洗衣機怎麼了？ A: 出水管用的排水孔，上面的蓋子必須換掉，因為排水孔的蓋子有金屬橫條，所以沒辦法把洗衣機排水管裝進去，如果沒有安裝密實，地板就會淹水。 B: 那抽風機是怎樣？是哪裡有問題？ A: 問題是沒有抽風機。 （Paul Cooper, Taipei Times／台北時報林俐凱譯） English 英文: Chinese 中文:
Just get the landlord around to take a look at it (4/5) 請房東過來看就好了（四） A: The third issue is that we wanted to put an oven in the kitchen. B: What’s stopping you? Isn’t there enough space for it? A: There’s plenty of space, but it needs a special cable. It runs on 220 volts, not 110 volts like most appliances. B: That’s just a small thing. Get in touch with the landlord and ask him to send an electrician around. If these are all the issues you’ve found with the new apartment, then you’re doing pretty well. A: I know, I know. There is one last problem, but it’s not really the