Sat, Jul 15, 2017 - Page 9 News List

Indian-Chinese impasse reveals hierarchy of humiliation

Surging nationalism in Asia has provided leaders with strong incentive to craft narratives that advance their own causes

By Devesh Kapur

Illustration: Tania Chou

Indian and Chinese troops have been locked in a standoff in Doka La — where the borders of Bhutan, China and India meet — for almost a month now, the longest such impasse between the two armies since 1962.

In a not-so-subtle reference to that last conflict, in which India suffered a disastrous defeat, Chinese Ministry of National Defense spokesperson Colonel Wu Qian (吳謙) warned India to “learn from historical lessons.” However, the lessons of history have a peculiar tendency to adapt to the perspective of those citing them.

Chinese leaders see in the 1962 conflict the price an uppity neighbor had to pay for not acceding to its territorial demands. However, for India that conflict was a humiliation that has rankled the country for more than a half-century. The reminder of it is therefore likely to have the opposite effect than Wu anticipated.

In international relations, to be humiliated means more than to be embarrassed. It amounts to the public degradation of another actor, a denial of its bid for status and the establishment of a clear hierarchy. Wars provide the opportunity for humiliation in very stark ways, because defeat on the battlefield tends to bring not just ridicule and derision, but also clear losses, particularly of territory.

If any country should understand the impact that such humiliations can have, it is China. In fact, as Wu was relaying his message to India, Chinese President Xi Jinping (習近平) was asserting — at the commemoration of the 20th anniversary of Hong Kong’s handover to China — that the move had ended the “humiliation and sorrow” inflicted by Britain when it took over the territory in 1842.

This reflects the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) broader use of China’s “century of humiliation,” which allegedly ended only when the CCP established the People’s Republic of China in 1949, to fuel a resurgent nationalism. During that period, China’s self-image as East Asia’s pre-eminent power was shattered by a series of defeats, which were particularly painful when inflicted by upstart Japan.

Despite this acute awareness of the enduring impact of its own humiliations, China often fails to recognize how its own past actions might have spurred similar feelings in others. Its 1962 defeat of India was the culmination of a decade-long competition for leadership of the newly independent countries that had emerged from decolonization. It therefore amounted to a devastating blow to India’s aspirations to be the undisputed leader of the Non-Aligned Movement.

India is far from the only country that has been humiliated at the hands of China. In Vietnam, the phrase “1,000 years of Chinese domination” has as much resonance as “100 years of foreign humiliation” has in China.

However, China is not the only country to have been humiliated and humiliated others in turn. While India was humiliated by China in 1962, it also inflicted what its neighbor Pakistan remembers as a humiliating defeat nine years later.

Since independence in 1947, Pakistan had vied to establish itself as India’s equal in South Asia, joining alliances led by the US or cozying up to China to demonstrate its strategic relevance. The 1971 Indo-Pakistani War, which led to the independence of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), crushed those hopes.

Yet Pakistan, too, remains oblivious to the humiliating impact of its own actions: Its nearly four-decade-long history of interference in Afghanistan to secure “strategic depth” will leave Afghanistan traumatized for years to come, in a way that Russia-inflicted losses did not.

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