Sun, Aug 10, 2014 - Page 9 News List

The politics of place names

While the naming or renaming of locations can spark national or ethnic pride, there is always the risk of igniting social or diplomatic tensions

By Ken Moritsugu  /  AP, TOKYO

Illustration: June Hsu

Is it the Persian Gulf or the Arabian Gulf? Mount McKinley or Denali? Mumbai or Bombay?

Some geographic names do not just tell us where we live or where we are going. They are also a political statement, or in the eyes of some, a politically incorrect one. They may not spark a war of the worlds, but they can cause a war of words.

China struck back last week after Japan slapped monikers on 158 previously unnamed islands off its shores. Five of them are part of a cluster that both nations claim and is itself the subject of a name dispute: Is it the Senkaku or the Diaoyu Islands?

“No unilateral action undertaken by Japan can change the fact that Diaoyu (釣魚) and its surrounding islands belong to China,” Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman Qin Gang (秦剛) said, using his country’s name for the remote tropical islands in the East China Sea.

One of the most cited examples, probably because of the vitriol that ensued, is a 1970s feud over Cyprus that played out in a UN forum. It started after Turkey occupied the northern part of the Mediterranean island and replaced Greek names for villages with Turkish ones.

In a letter to the UN conference on geographic names, Cyprus accused Turkey of committing “all kinds of unprecedented atrocities” against the Greek population, according to retired Israeli cartographer Naftali Kadman, who reviewed the official documents.

“They demonstrate that geographical names can constitute explosive items or, in popular terms, hot potatoes,” he wrote in a 2004 article for the Cartographic Journal in Britain.

The Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, which Kadman noted was not recognized by the UN, responded in kind, saying: “The willful and unjustified change of names has been a political pastime of the Greek Cypriot leaders for a long number of years.”

The study of geographic names is known as toponymy and those who specialize in it say it is more than an academic pursuit.

“In a sense, naming expresses ownership, because it implies both comprehension and the legitimacy of the namer’s historical and cultural legacy,” professor Dan Montello wrote in a 2010 posting on the University of California, Santa Barbara, geology department’s Web site. “Hence, colonizers and claimants to territory usually change toponyms, and the original owners usually change them back if and when they get a chance.”

Saigon became Ho Chi Minh City in 1976 after the North defeated the South and its US allies in the Vietnam War.

Since 1984, it has been Burkina Faso, not Upper Volta, or Haute-Volta, as its former French rulers dubbed the West African state.

In India, part of Britain’s former empire, Bombay became Mumbai in 1995, and the southern city of Madras was renamed Chennai the following year.

Politicians sometimes make these changes to stir national or ethnic pride and some in Mumbai still feel uncomfortable with the name change, which was carried out by a nativist party that rose to power after stoking deadly anti-Muslim riots in the city, said Naresh Fernandes, the author of City Adrift: A Short Biography of Bombay.

“Given the bloody circumstances in which the name was changed, the word Mumbai now smells to me of gloating triumphalism, and I always call the city Bombay,” said Fernandes, who covered the name change as a reporter for The Associated Press in 1995.

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