The five older styles, the students of which usually learn from 88 to 108 postures and have to practice for years before honing advanced skills, are considered orthodox.
The death of culture
Though China is indisputably the birthplace of tai chi, it arguably remains the center for the teaching of the art as many of the most prominent tai chi masters left China for Taiwan at the end of the civil war in 1949 and set up their own schools.
Many practitioners remained in China, but their ability to open schools, train pupils and publish teachings was severely curtailed by the political atmosphere of the time. The final nail in the coffin came at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution when the communist government led by Mao Tse-tung (毛澤東) systematically purged anyone who was seen practicing tai chi.
One way which the authorities caught teachers of tai chi would be to send spies to pretend they were potential students looking for a master to teach them. When the teacher confirmed what the “student” already knew, the former would be rounded up.
Chan said children would report to the authorities that their parents were practicing tai chi and when caught they were sent to labor camps for political re-education.
With the end of the Cultural Revolution, there was a resurgence of interest in tai chi. But the atmosphere of paranoia still remained and many of the masters who were formerly happy to take on students were unwilling to admit they were masters in the art.
Though there are more than 144 tai chi moves, the competition organizers have set limits on the number of moves allowed in competition to make scoring easier. For the fixed push-hand moves, contestants are limited to using any of eight postures to knock their opponents off balance and thereby win a point. For the moving push-hands section, 13 postures can be employed.
Despite the limited number of postures, watching competitions may be somewhat confusing for a non-practitioner. Scoring a point against one’s opponent involves the successful completion of a move or the ability to neutralize a move made by your opponent. For both, the spectator must understand the kind of move each of the competitors was originally trying to make.
To make the sport more international and consistent, the National Tai Chi Chuan Association of the Republic of China (NTCA) drew up a series of rules in 1993. At the time of their adoption, it was hoped that by making the sport more rule-oriented, tai chi would be included in the Olympics. This has yet to come to fruition.
The field for the push-hand competition is 8m2, at the center of which is a circle 6m in diameter. Competitors must keep their feet within the circle. For fixed push-hand competitions, a separated board is set up. For both competitions, an executive referee and two deputy referees keep score, while two medical personal, a scorekeeper, timekeeper, announcer and referee-in-chief stand outside the field.
For push-hand competitions, there are nine different weight categories for both men and women and once on the field the moves must be completed within two minutes, while fixed push-hand rounds must be completed within one minute. Competitors must be between 16 and 60 years of age.
The field for the routine competition is 14m by 8m. There are five judges, one positioned on each corner of the rectangle that makes up the field, the fifth in the center. The routine competitions also have a timekeeper, announcer, routine checker and referee-in-chief who are all stationed just outside of the competitor’s field. There is no age limit for the routine competition.