Fri, Jul 12, 2019 - Page 13 News List

Highways & Byways: From plantation to eco-corridor

How the rise and fall of the sugar industry helped shape Hualien’s Guangfu

By Steven Crook  /  Contributing reporter

Looking toward the Coastal Mountain Range from the southeastern corner of Danong Dafu Forest Park.

Photo: Steven Crook

If Taiwan’s history were written in 10 nouns, sugar would be one of them.

Back in the 17th century, the Dutch East India Company shipped sugar from their Tainan colony to Japan. The sugar trade continued to grow after the violent expulsion of the Dutch by Cheng Cheng-kung (鄭成功, also known as Koxinga). By the 1870s, when Taiwan was well and truly part of the global economy, Taiwanese sugar was being consumed as far away as Australia and California.

The 1895 to 1945 period of Japanese rule saw massive expansion, to the point where cane plantations covered a fifth of Taiwan’s farmland. During the 1950s, sugar was by a huge margin the country’s most lucrative export.

After World War II, the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) regime that took control of Taiwan consolidated the industry’s 42 sugar factories, narrow-gauge railway network and 114,000 hectares of land into Taiwan Sugar Corporation (台糖, TSC).

Throughout its existence, TSC has been a state-owned enterprise supervised by politicians. It’s fair to assume that, over the past 70-odd years, it’s been less efficient than most private corporations. But if TSC had been privatized — or if each facility or plot of farmland had been sold off as soon as shriveling sugar production meant it was no longer needed — we likely wouldn’t have places like Tsung-Yeh Arts and Cultural Center (總爺藝文中心) in Greater Tainan or Danong Dafu Forest Park (大農大富平地森林園區) in Hualien County.

The private sector would have demolished the beautiful Japanese-era buildings at the former, so they could pack the site with McMansions. The latter is too large and too far from any major city for residential development. But if that part of the East Rift Valley had been opened to profit-seekers, you can bet we wouldn’t be reading reports like the one that appeared in this newspaper on July 19 last year titled “Park reforestation brings back species.” Scientists have discovered small Indian civets, masked palm civets, crab-eating mongooses and other creatures in the forest park.

One of the linchpins of the sugar industry in east Taiwan was Hualien Sugar Factory (花蓮糖廠). Despite its name, this processing facility — which ceased operations in 2002 — is located in Guangfu Township (光復鄉), about 48 km south of downtown Hualien.

The factory was built in 1921 by Ensuiko Sugar Refining Co (鹽水港製糖株式會社), the smallest of the four Japanese-invested companies that dominated the local sugar industry until 1945. (Ensuiko survived the loss of its assets in Taiwan after 1945 and continues to sell over US$200 million worth of sugar-related products per year.)

In terms of scale, architecture or historical interest, Hualien Sugar Factory doesn’t compare to some of the TSC sites in west Taiwan, yet it has several intriguing features.

Much of the interior is open to visitors, and if you go inside you’ll see a great deal of old equipment. Among the boilers, crushers, rollers and pulping vats are machines which bear the insignia of the British, German, Dutch and Japanese companies which supplied them.

When sugar is refined, one by-product is molasses. In Taiwan, molasses was often turned into ethanol, and as part of Allied efforts to choke off Japan’s fuel supplies, the US Air Force bombed the factory in Guangfu at least twice in 1945.

If you examine the exterior of the factory’s buildings, you’ll soon find scars left by shrapnel. The two ponds at the center of the complex, where carp now thrive, were originally bomb craters. Next to one of the ponds, there’s a shop which sells TSC’s signature ice creams and popsicles; among the more unusual flavors are taro and sugarcane juice.

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