Mohammad Ali sits before a painting of a semi-naked man and declares that his work has never been censored in conservative Muslim Pakistan, where an artistic vanguard are challenging taboos in the chaotic city of Karachi.
“I have done some pretty bold and risky works but luckily I did not face any,” says the 27-year-old, a rising star who paints figurative, contemporary images exploring gender, politics and sex.
Ali has a theory about why, in a developing country where women are traditionally veiled and even unproven allegations of blasphemy can stir mob violence, he has been so free.
Photo: Asif Hassan, AFP
“People, a lot of them don’t have access to even a decent meal, and if they are starving you cannot make them interested in art instead of food,” he says.
Pakistan remains deeply bound to strict religious norms, although art bursts from unexpected places, such as the acid-trip trucks wild with bells and bright, elaborate images that traverse the country.
But in recent years, Karachi’s concrete sprawl has become home to a rush of galleries and dealerships bullish on the country’s art market as a new generation challenges constraints that date back to the Islamization of the 1980s.
In the port city’s trendy Canvass Gallery, owner Sameera Raja takes AFP on a tour of the nude and homosexual art on display.
“These are not the things which are taboos in our society, at least not in the art-related population,” she says.
“Having said that, it doesn’t that mean I am going to socially risk the artist by putting it up on a the public platform. Absolutely not,” she swiftly adds.
RISK OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE
Raja is all too aware that, despite the confidence of artists such as Ali — whose paintings have so far been confined to galleries and private spaces — such art only finds safe haven in showrooms like hers and in the bedrooms of the Pakistani elite.
Her caution is echoed by other artists, such as third-year visual arts student Hadiqa Asif at the state-run Karachi University.
“If we want to make a sculpture so we must be aware that it should not cause any harm to the society,” she says, chiselling at a piece of wood.
Some artists point to the Islamization of Pakistan by military dictator Zia ul-Haq in the 1980s as a ground zero of sorts for conservative taboos, and other forms of art that flourished because of them, such as calligraphy.
“During the regime of Zia ul-Haq there was much noise of imposition of Islamic government in the country,” prominent Pakistani artist Mashkoor Raza, famous for his abstract images of women and horses, recalls. “Our seniors would draw nudes, but fearing their arrest they started calligraphy of the religious verses and Sufi poetry.”
He said he found himself unable to earn a living, and worked in a textile mill as a designer for nearly a decade, using his savings to buy brushes, paints and canvas. But Zia was assassinated in 1988, and the 1990s saw galleries and art shops mushroom in urban centers like Karachi.
“After the 90s, I became the owner of my own home, car and whatnot,” says Raza, who now lives in a posh neighbourhood fanned by the city’s sea breezes.
Estimates by gallery owners and art critics put the number of galleries, framers and dealers in Karachi alone in the hundreds. “They are growing exponentially, it’s a huge market, I think,” Raja comments.
NO NUDES ARE GOOD NUDES?
This fresh dynamism is having a potent effect, says Munwar Ali Syed, an art professor at Karachi University.
“Of course, we are very cautious here to censor human body parts,” he says. “There are some limitations.”
But the squeezing of liberal thought does not stifle creativity, he claims — rather it spurs his students in new directions.
“When you realize that there are some limits and boundaries which you can not cross, you work more creatively,” he says, citing a sculptor named Mohammad Ismail. Eight years ago, Ismail fell from the second story of a building where he was supervising construction and broke his back, leaving him confined him to a wheelchair for life.
Now the 35-year-old crafts twisted, skeletal sculptures from metal.
“My own skeleton got distorted so I focus on it,” he tells AFP, seated next to a work table as he puts the finishing touches on a new piece. “I searched the intricacies of the skeleton, I drew my strength from it and I tried to support myself through this.”
Despite the shift and the brimming confidence of artists like Ali, change, already decades in the making, remains slow. For many, sex — contrary to the received wisdom — still doesn’t sell.
“I don’t think that there is a room for the nude in Pakistan other than what an artist makes privately for themselves,” Durriya Kazi, head of the visual arts department at Karachi University, told AFP. “I don’t think it is relevant to our society.”
Chen Zhiwu (陳志武) says that the COVID-19 crisis puts into sharp focus that we are in a new cold war, with China and the US being the two protagonists. “It’s almost literally in front of us,” says Chen, Director of Asia Global Institute and Chair Professor of Finance at the University of Hong Kong. Political observers were hesitant, Chen says, even up to the beginning of this year, to confirm a new cold war was underway. “But ... the coronavirus has made clear the clash in values and way of life between what China would like to pursue, and what
For tourists visiting Hualien, Taroko National Park (太魯閣國家公園) is the first order of business. But if you find yourself in the city with half a day to spare — your train back to Taipei will leave mid-afternoon, say — it’s hardly worth busing out to Taroko Gorge. Instead, borrow or rent a bicycle or a scooter, or hail a cab, and set out for one of these attractions. At only one of these places is there an admission charge. CISINGTAN SCENIC AREA A literal translation of Cisingtan (七星潭) would be “Seven Stars Pond,” but there’s no pond here, just the vast Pacific
To bring sustainability and prosperity to their farms, some agriculturalists in southern Taiwan have embraced innovative types of companion planting. In contrast to the monoculture that dominates much of the rich world’s farmland, companion planting is the cultivation of different crops in proximity, usually to optimize the space, for pest control or to enhance pollination. The symbiotic relationship between cacao trees and betel nut, which may be unique to Pingtung County, is striking when one visits the cacao plantations maintained by Choose Chius (邱氏可可) and Wugawan (牛角灣) in Neipu (內埔). The history of growing cacao in Taiwan goes back to Japanese colonial
I had really hoped that this film would be a Taiwanese answer to the American camp classic Snakes on a Plane, but Spiders on a Ship — er, Abyssal Spider (海霧) — takes itself way too seriously. One major gripe about Taiwanese commercial features is that they are prone to being unnecessarily over the top, but that’s the one element that could have made Abyssal more watchable. The lack of camp is especially disappointing since director Joe Chien (錢人豪) first made his mark with the intentionally trashy horror movie Zombie 108 (棄城Z-108). Released in 2012, it is considered Taiwan’s earliest