Sun, Jul 31, 2016 - Page 15 News List

Grain drain: Laos’ sand mining is damaging Mekong River

Massive excavation driven by a Chinese-led construction boom is harming the ecosystem, threatening salinization and encroachment by the sea in crucial farmland and harming fishermen’s livelihoods

By Marion Thibaut  /  AFP, VIENTIANE

Workers sort through pebbles at a sand excavation site along the Mekong River in Vientiane, Laos, on May 31.

Photo: AFP

Grain by grain, truckload by truckload, Laos’ section of the Mekong River is being dredged of sand to make cement — a commodity being devoured by a Chinese-led building boom in the capital. However, the hollowing out of the riverbed is also damaging a vital waterway that feeds hundreds of thousands of fishermen and farmers in the poverty-stricken nation.

“Today, it’s more complicated for us to go fetch water for crops,” Deam Saengarn said from the muddy river’s shores, describing how its gentle slopes have given way to steep embankments.

The 36-year-old mother of two captures Laos’ development conundrum: She depends on a US$10 daily wage from a sand extraction firm, but also relies on the very river she is helping to gouge.

“We really need this water,” she added wistfully, dripping with sweat as she separated stones from the mountains of sediment piled on the shore.

All around her, industrial pipes and excavators suck up the Mekong’s floor, carving moon-like craters into the bed of a river that winds through most of the landlocked nation.

It is a familiar story in a country whose natural resources have been steadily plundered by businesses — many of them Chinese — under the gaze of communist leaders who brook no dissent, but welcome foreign cash.

Sand, an unflashy and seemingly infinite resource, is the chief ingredient in cement and the hidden hand behind the explosion of cities worldwide.

China is also its top consumer — devouring more than 60 percent of the global output and using more sand in four years than the US did in the entire 20th century.

Dredging has been taking place for years along the Mekong, but the industrial scale is relatively new to Laos, where the grains pave a flurry of new construction projects in the country’s sleepy capital, many of them funded by Chinese firms.

“We now have many Chinese clients. They are constructing huge buildings in Vientiane, so they need a lot of sand and pebbles,” said Air Phangnalay, who helps run an extraction company in Laos.

China is the largest source of foreign investment in neighboring Laos.

Chinese businesspeople loom large in the isolated nation and have zeroed in on its array of timber and mineral resources — often to the dismay of an impoverished populace with few outlets to air grievances.

Experts say the uptick in sand mining, a lesser-known resource grab, is harming the delicate ecosystem of a river that about 60 million people across the region depend on.

The 4,800km Mekong, which starts in southwestern China and empties out in southern Vietnam, is the world’s largest inland fishery and among the most biodiverse rivers on the globe, according to the Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF).

It naturally produces about 20 million tonnes of sediment a year, but is now seeing twice that much extracted annually, according to the latest research to which the WWF contributed.

Most of the dredging is taking place in Cambodia and Vietnam, but the pace of mining is picking up speed in Laos — an opaque country where big businesses can swallow up resources with minimal scrutiny.

The WWF’s Marc Goichot said the rate of mining along the Mekong has become “unsustainable” and is setting the stage for especially dire damage downstream.

“The river needs the sand to be transported from upstream down to the delta to fight against salinization and encroachment of the sea in this crucial area for agriculture,” he said.

Comments will be moderated. Keep comments relevant to the article. Remarks containing abusive and obscene language, personal attacks of any kind or promotion will be removed and the user banned. Final decision will be at the discretion of the Taipei Times.

TOP top