Some of Asia’s emerging economies are showing signs of overheating, underscoring the need for further policy tightening and more flexible foreign exchange rates to tackle growing inflationary pressures, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) said yesterday.
Developing Asia, a diverse group of economies including China, India, Azerbaijan, Thailand and Fiji, is expected to grow 7.8 percent this year and 7.7 percent next year, robust rates albeit slower than the 9 percent seen last year, the ADB said in its latest Asian Development Outlook report.
At the same time, inflation is expected to quicken to an average 5.3 percent this year from 4.4 percent last year, before easing to 4.6 percent next year, the ADB said. Some countries such as Vietnam and Pakistan could see inflation climb well into the double digits.
“There is some sign of overheating, some need for more policy tightening in future,” ADB chief economist Changyong Rhee said at a media briefing in Hong Kong, speaking generally of Asian inflation.
“Developing Asia is home to two-thirds of the world’s poor and it is they who are most vulnerable to the effects of price increases,” he said. “Policymakers must therefore consider preemptive action to control inflation before it accelerates.”
Higher interest rates alone may not be enough to tamp down price pressures, Rhee added, urging policymakers to use a variety of measures to curb inflation, including allowing greater flexibility in their currencies and capital controls.
“The region’s outlook is for continued strong growth in 2011- 2012, but with the threat of inflation looming closer,” the ADB said in its report.
“When weighing their macroeconomic policy choices, many of developing Asia’s policymakers see that the balance has tipped toward avoiding overheating.”
Besides rising food and fuel prices, other risks to regional growth included soft job and housing markets in the US, Europe’s debt problems and the economic impact of last month’s massive earthquake in Japan and nuclear crisis, the ADB said.
The bank, which said its report was generally based on data available up to March 16, said the impact of Japan’s disaster was hard to quantify, but was likely to impact negatively on the country’s economic growth for the next two quarters, with minimal spillover to other Asian economies.
“The impact on Japan in the short run will be large — in the next two quarters for example — but I think the long-run economic prospects will be less dire and the impact on other regions will be contained. I don’t think there will be a very significant threat to other regions at this moment,” Rhee said.
China, in particular, could do more to tighten monetary policy, the ADB said, even after Beijing raised interest rates on Tuesday for the fourth time since October. Inflation in China is running at about 5 percent and could accelerate further in coming months.