Claude Monet was a French painter who lived at the turn of the 20th century, from 1840 to 1926. He is credited as the founder of impressionism, a painting style characterized by its use of many thin brushstrokes to create a dream-like quality. Impressionist paintings are celebrated for the way they seem to capture a sense of life in motion. Monet didn’t just simply paint landscapes; he wanted to convey the sensations he experienced when he saw them.
Many of Monet’s paintings portray the passage of time, like clouds drifting through the sky or the sun setting in the distance. His landscapes often have a hazy appearance, as if fog is blurring edges, and obscuring objects that are far away. Some researchers have suggested the haze of Monet’s landscapes may have actually been air pollution.
Monet was painting at a time when heavy industry was starting to seriously impact the environment. This was especially true in urban centers like London and Paris. The hypothesis is that Monet’s works reflect the increasing levels of air pollution that Europe experienced in the late 19th century and early 20th century. As Monet’s painting career progressed, background visibility in his paintings seems to gradually decrease.
Photo courtesy of Claude Monet 照片：Claude Monet提供
In letters to his wife, Monet sometimes described the air quality and appearance of environments he was painting. In some messages, he even indicates a preference for the smoke and fog produced by human activity in London. Evidence suggests that a significant number of Monet’s works were influenced, or even inspired, by the way air pollution affected light and vision. It is a curious notion that air pollution may have been the muse for one of modern history’s greatest artists.
What Did You Learn?
1. What is impressionism?（簡答題 )
2. According to researchers, the haze in Monet’s paintings was probably caused by _____ as a result of _____ in Europe in the late 19th century and early 20th century.（填空題）
1. It is a painting style characterized by its use of many thin brushstrokes to create dream-like qualities
2. air pollution / heavy industry
Word in Use
1. muse n. 靈感（泉源）
? The artist said her muse for creation is her cat.
2. characterize vt. 以……為特色∕特徵
be characterized by... 具有……的特色∕特徵
? A common cold is characterized by sneezing, coughing and a runny nose.
3. convey vt. 傳達（消息、情感等）
? The report conveyed an important message: smoking does us no good.
4. sensation n. 感覺
? The sensation of the warm sun on Kelly’s skin made her feel relaxed.
5. portray vt. 描繪，描寫
? This famous painting portrays the war between the Greeks and Trojans.
1. at the turn of the+序數詞+century
? The temple was built at the turn of the 18th century.
2. be credited as... 被認為是……
? Angela is often credited as the founder of the company, although there were many others involved in its foundation.
3. be celebrated for sth 以某事物聞名∕著稱
? France is celebrated for its fine food and numerous art museums.
4. in motion 移動中；運轉中
? It’s very dangerous to get on or off a train when it is in motion.
Bye, Lightning cable. Hello, USB-C. Apple is ditching its in-house iPhone charging plug and falling in line with the rest of the tech industry by adopting a more widely used connection standard. A big part of the reason is a European Union common charging rule that’s coming soon for the 27-nation bloc. Here’s a look at the USB-C plug and what it means for consumers: WHAT IS USB-C AND HOW CAN I TELL IT APART FROM OTHER PLUGS? The first part of the acronym stands for Universal Serial Bus, and it replaces earlier versions of the USB cables used on everything from printers and
A: More and more department stores are opening soon. In Taipei’s east district, Shin Kong Mitsukoshi’s Diamond Towers are to launch a trial run tomorrow. B: And in New Taipei’s Xindian District, Yes! Life Yulon City shopping mall featuring Asia’s largest Eslite Bookstore will also start a trial operation next week. A: There are so many department stores. B: Yeah, in Taipei’s Xinyi District alone, there are Shin Kong’s A4, A8, A9 and A11, Breeze Xinyi, Songgao, Nanshan, Far Eastern Xinyi, Eslite Xinyi, Uni-Ustyle, Belavita, ATT and Taipei 101. A: Well, let’s go window shopping then! A: 又有更多的百貨公司要開幕啦，台北市東區的新光三越「雙子星鑽石塔」，明天起將展開試營運。 B:
交通規則是每個人日常生活不可避免的一部分，不明所以的上路出門將承擔人身安全風險或錢包遭殃的代價。交通情境更是TOEIC常考的內容之一。透過這次的交通新制上路，我們從規則、罰款和駕照三大部分來學TOEIC常考字吧！ 交通規則說法 交通規則英文一共有三種說法，分別是traffic laws、traffic regulations、traffic rules。 1. laws是法律，所以traffic laws指的就是和交通相關的法律條文。2. regulation則是來自於regulate（規範），因為交通有各式各樣的行為都是受到規範的，所以可以用traffic regulations來表示交通規則。但其實regulation最常見的用法還是一些相關部門或企業的principles or regulations governing conducts（希望大家遵守的行為方式）。3. 而英文字rules，和交通相關的詞就是traffic rules，這個字也較常搭配比賽使用，例如contest rules或game rules。 The newly amended air pollution law has aroused wide controversy. （新修訂的空污法激起了廣泛的爭議。） Many financial leaders around the globe are calling for stricter regulations for crypto currencies. （全球許多的金融領袖正呼籲對加密貨幣進行更嚴格的規範。） Tabletop games with complex rules are not for beginners. （具有複雜規則的桌遊不適合新手。） 守規則與違規 守規則有兩個主要的英文說法是follow與obey，follow來自於跟從，obey的原意是服從，所以當我們跟從或服從特定的規定，自然就是遵守規則。而違規也有最基本的三種英文說法，分別是break、violate和offend。 這三個英文單字，最口語的說法是break（打破），但要特別注意break the rule（打破常規）也可以是正面意思。而違規較正式的說法是violate，它來自於拉丁文的violatus，與violence（暴力）是同一個語源。若你想把這個單字背起來，你可以把violate想像成是使用暴力時侵犯到某些規則。另外，動詞offend（冒犯）可以用來表達違規，但在使用時通常要轉化成為名詞，例如traffic offender。 Sometimes it pays off to break the rules. （有時打破常規是會值得的。） The new business idea may violate international law. （這個新的商業想法可能會違反國際法。） Habitual traffic offenders should receive more severe punishments. （交通慣犯應該接受更為嚴厲的處罰。） 處罰英文怎麼說？ 被抓到違規後當然要接受處罰啦，由於交通處罰大多是用罰款來處理，所以最常用的字就是fine。Fine當成形容詞的意思是「好的」，如It’s a fine day，但當成動詞或是名詞時的意思則是「罰款」。 The company is facing a huge fine for violating several trade regulations. （該公司因為違反數條貿易規範而面臨巨額罰款。） 除了fine之外，處罰也可以penalty來表示。Penalty這個字相信最近會被許多人討論，因為世足賽上的「罰12碼球」就稱為Penalty kick，也就是PK（一對一挑戰）的由來。除了足球，在日常生活中遇到任何的違規被罰，只要是「付出代價」性質的都可以用penalty來表示。 The train company will hike the penalty on
If you are looking for some adventure along with physical challenges, you may want to give “bouldering” a try. This activity involves free climbing on small rock formations or __1__ rock walls. Bouldering, which literally means climbing on boulders, doesn’t need ropes or harnesses that are necessary for rock climbing. Bouldering only requires a minimal amount of __2__ such as climbing shoes, some chalk, and safety mats. A bouldering wall is no higher than five meters, so bouldering can be done both indoors and outdoors. What’s more, climbers are __3__ to solve problems by using their strength, technique, and balance