When it comes to global warming, hamburgers are the Hummers of food, scientists say. Simply switching from steak to salad could cut as much carbon as leaving the car at home a couple days a week.
That’s because beef is such an incredibly inefficient food to produce and cows release so much harmful methane into the atmosphere, said Nathan Pelletier of Dalhousie University in Canada.
Pelletier is one of a growing number of scientists studying the environmental costs of food from field to plate. By looking at everything from how much grain a cow eats before it is ready for slaughter to the emissions released by manure, they are getting a clearer idea of the true costs of food. The livestock sector is estimated to account for 18 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions and beef is the biggest culprit.
Even though beef only accounts for 30 percent of meat consumption in the developed world it’s responsible for 78 percent of the emissions, Pelletier said on Sunday at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
That’s because a 1kg of beef produces 16kg carbon dioxide equivalent emissions: four times higher than pork and more than 10 times as much as a kilogram of poultry, Pelletier said. If people were to simply switch from beef to chicken, emissions would be cut by 70 percent, Pelletier said. Another part of the problem is people are eating far more meat than they need to.
“Meat once was a luxury in our diet,” Pelletier said. “We used to eat it once a week. Now we eat it every day.”
If meat consumption in the developed world was cut from the current level of about 90kg a year to the recommended level of 53kg a year, livestock related emissions would fall by 44 percent.
“Given the projected doubling of [global] meat production by 2050, we’re going to have to cut our emissions by half just to maintain current levels,” Pelletier said. “Technical improvements are not going to get us there.”
That’s why changing the kinds of food people eat is so important, said Chris Weber, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Carnegie Mellon University.
Food is the third-largest contributor to the average US household’s carbon footprint after driving and utilities, and in Europe it has an even greater impact.
“Food is of particular importance to a consumer’s impact because it’s a daily choice that is, at least in theory, easy to change,” Weber said. “You make your choice every day about what to eat, but once you have a house and a car you’re locked into that for a while.”
The average US household contributes about 4.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide a year by driving and about 3 tonnes of equivalent emissions with what they eat, he said.
“Switching to no red meat and no dairy products is the equivalent of [cutting out] 8,100 miles [13,000km] driven in a car ... that gets 25 miles to the gallon,” Weber said in an interview following the symposium.