Tue, May 27, 2008 - Page 2 News List

FEATURE: Hakka language proficiency grows

By Loa Iok-sin  /  STAFF REPORTER

Kindergarten students in Taipei learn Hakka by singing songs in the classroom on Aug. 21 last year.


It came as a surprise to many when Chen Jou-an (陳柔安) — a 10-year-old fourth-grader born and raised in Taipei — passed the medium-high level Hakka proficiency exam this month.

This year marks the first time the medium and medium-high level Hakka proficiency exams were held.

Since the Hakka proficiency exams first started in 2005, only beginner’s level exams were offered.

“The medium and medium-high level exams differ from the beginner’s level in having semantics and composition,” said Gu Guo-shun (古國順), a Taiwanese literature professor at National Hsinchu University of Education, who served as an examiner.

“The composition part is especially difficult because many test-takers are not used to writing in Hakka even though they are all fluent in it,” he said. “Besides, you need to use a lot of Hakka idioms to score highly.”

An indicator of the difficulty is that only 2,637 test-takers out of the 11,254 who signed up for the medium-high level exam passed, making the passing rate 33.09 percent

Although even the examiner considered the composition the hardest section of the exam, Chen Jou-an didn’t think so.

“I loved taking the exam — the composition was the easiest section and the oral test was the most fun,” she told the Taipei Times in a telephone call.

Chen Jou-an added that she would definitely teach Hakka to her own children and wouldn’t mind becoming a Hakka teacher.

In fact, Chen Jou-an’s parents have also taken the exam and both passed at the medium-high level.

Although the Chens live in Taipei — a city where Mandarin is the dominant language and many people have lost the ability to speak their mother tongues fluently — they have no special tricks in keeping their native tongue alive at home.

“[My wife and I] are both Hakkas, and we talk to our children in Hakka at home,” said Chen Yen-ching (陳炎清), Chen Jou-an’s father. “For me, it’s important to pass on the language, and speaking it at home is the easiest way to keep it alive.”

Besides speaking it at home, Chen Yen-ching said that he has bought many books on Hakka idioms and written Hakka.

“I never forced my kids to read them, but I encourage them to read books just for fun,” he said. “And when Jou-an comes across some questions in Hakka classes at school, she’d come home and ask me.”

However, Chen Jou-an’s case does not mean that the Hakka language can be removed from the endangered list.

“The number of Hakka speakers has increased over the past few years due to promotional efforts by the Council for Hakka Affairs, but it’s still worrisome,” Huang Yu-chen (黃玉振), the new council chairman told reporters at his inaugural reception on Friday.

“The percentage of children under the age of 13 who are able to speak Hakka fluently rose from 11 percent [in 2002] to 18 percent last year,” Huang said. “But it’s still quite scary to think that less than 20 percent of children under 13 are able to speak fluent Hakka.”

“If we don’t do anything about it, the number of Hakka speakers is estimated to fall to under 1 percent within the next 40 years,” he said.

Despite the success in preserving the Hakka language in his family, Chen Yen-ching also has the same concern.

“Whenever I go back to my parents’ house in Miaoli, I find that most kids speak half Hakka and half Mandarin, even to their grandparents,” he said. “What’s even worse is that there seems to be an increasing number of grandparents talking to their grandchildren in Mandarin.”

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