They came from Mars, not in peace, but in pieces.
Scientists are confirming that 15 pounds (6.8kg) of rock collected recently in Morocco fell to Earth from Mars during a meteorite shower in July last year.
This is only the fifth time in history that scientists have chemically confirmed Martian meteorites that people witnessed falling. The fireball was spotted in the sky six months ago, but the rocks were not discovered on the ground in north Africa until the end of last month.
This is an important and unique opportunity for scientists trying to learn about Mars’ potential for life. So far, no US or Russian spacecraft has returned bits of Mars, so the only samples scientists can examine are those that arrive on Earth in meteorite showers.
Scientists and collectors are ecstatic, and already the rocks are fetching big bucks because they are among the rarest things on Earth, rarer even than gold. The biggest rock weighs more than 1kg.
“It’s Christmas in January,” said former NASA sciences chief Alan Stern, director of the Florida Space Institute at the University of Central Florida.
“It’s nice to have Mars sending samples to Earth, particularly when our pockets are too empty to go get them ourselves,” he said.
A special committee of meteorite experts, including some NASA scientists, on Tuesday confirmed test results that showed the rocks came from Mars, based on their age and chemical signature.
Astronomers think millions of years ago something big smashed into Mars and sent rocks hurtling through the solar system. After a long journey through space, one of those rocks plunged through Earth’s atmosphere, breaking into smaller pieces.
Most other Martian meteorite samples sat around on Earth for millions of years — or at the very least decades — before they were discovered, which makes them tainted with Earth materials and life. These new rocks, while still probably contaminated because they have been on Earth for months, are purer.
The last time a Martian meteorite fell and was found fresh was in 1962. All the known Martian rocks on Earth add up to less than 109kg.
The new samples were scooped up by dealers from those who found them. Even before the official certification, scientists at NASA, museums and universities scrambled to buy or trade these meteorites.
“It’s incredibly fresh. It’s highly valuable for that reason,” said Carl Agee, director of the Institute of Meteoritics and curator at the University of New Mexico. “This is a beauty. It’s gorgeous.”
Meteorite dealer Darryl Pitt said he is charging US$11,000 to US$22,500 an ounce and has sold most of his supply already. At that price, the Martian rock costs about 10 times as much as gold.
One important decision the scientists made on Tuesday was to officially connect the rocks to the fiery plunge witnessed by people and captured on video in the middle of last year.
The announcement and the naming of these meteorites, called Tissint, came from the International Society for Meteoritics and Planetary Science, which is the official group of 950 scientists that confirms and names meteorites.
Tony Irving of the University of Washington did the scientific analysis on the rocks and he said there is no doubt they are from the red planet.
Scientists can tell when meteorites are from Mars because they know what the Martian atmosphere is made of, thanks to numerous probes sent there. The chemical signature of the rocks and the Martian air match, Irving said.