Archaeologists tend to be stereotyped as people who work on land, digging up ancient ruins that lie below the surface of the earth. However, in recent decades, an exciting new form of archaeology has taken shape. This new practice is called underwater archaeology. Put simply, instead of looking under the ground for ancient artifacts, archaeologists dive deep into the ocean to conduct their searches. Underwater archaeology, although not without logistical difficulties, has been responsible for a number of high-profile findings in recent years.
The development of underwater archaeology owes much to concurrent technological progress. First and foremost, it was the invention of self-contained underwater breathing apparatuses, or scuba for short, that initially made this practice possible. Subsequently, more advanced technologies—such as light detection and ranging (or lidar) and submersibles, which are remotely controlled robotic vehicles that can travel underwater—have rendered underwater archaeology more straightforward by making ocean environments more accessible and easier to observe.
However, practical challenges still remain. For example, the archaeologists involved need to be skilled divers who can maneuver themselves underwater while properly handling any delicate discoveries. In addition, the success of a search relies heavily on good weather and water conditions.
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Nevertheless, underwater archaeology has led to some truly fascinating discoveries despite the limitations. In 1994, a group of archaeologists from France working in Egypt found the remains of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the “Seven Wonders of the Ancient World,” during a search in the modern city of Alexandria’s Eastern Harbor. With such discoveries, it is clear why many of the world’s archaeologists are now looking to deep waters to uncover the hidden treasures that lie beneath.
水下考古學的發展很大程度上歸功於同時發展的技術進步。首先，是自給式水下呼吸器（簡稱「水肺」）的發明最初使這種做法成為可能。隨後，更先進的技術―― 例如光學雷達（縮寫為 lidar）和潛水器，它們是可以在水下行駛的遠端遙控機器人車輛──透過使海洋環境更容易到達及更容易觀察，水下考古變得更簡單。
What Did You Learn?
1. Marvin is a professional archaeologist. Which of the following is most likely what he said, according to the passage?
(A) “Until now, no one has found underwater structures near the deep waters of Egypt.”
(B) “Like that in the US, the development of underwater archaeology in Taiwan is still very new.”
(C) “If you’re interested in technical scuba diving, you can explore the ruins of the Lighthouse of Alexandria in France.”
(D) “Conducting archaeological research underwater is a tough process; it is quite impossible for someone new to diving to do it.”
2. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
(A) Scuba is a much more cutting-edge technology than lidar.
(B) In ancient times, Egypt was the only country to bury treasures underwater.
(C) Underwater archaeology has developed considerably because of simultaneous technological advancements.
(D) Underwater searches can be conducted in any kind of weather.
答案: 1. (D) 2. (C)
Word in Use
1. stereotype vt. 對…有刻板印象
Women are always stereotyped as more sensitive than men, which is not always true.
2. ruins n. 廢墟／遺跡（恆用複數）
The ancient ruins of the Parthenon are a must-see in Athens.
3. conduct vt. 進行（研究、調查等）
The company has conducted a few experiments on animals.
4. high-profile a. 備受矚目的，引人注意的
The high-profile scandal was on every news channel in the country.
5. subsequently adv. 後來，接著
John lost his job last month. Subsequently, he has had to do odd jobs to live.
1. dig up . . . / dig . . . up 挖出…
Tina dug up a dying plant in her garden.
2. take shape 成形，形成
Our plans to build a house started to take shape last spring.
3. Put simply, S + V 簡言之，…
= Simply put, S + V
Put simply, Lily works harder than anyone else in the company.
4. owe A to B 將A歸功於B
I owe all my success today to my parents.
5. First and foremost, . . . 首先／首要地，……
There are many things you need before baking a pie. First and foremost, you need a flat surface where you can prepare the crust.
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Having a toothache 牙齒痛 Maggie: I have a toothache, so I have to go to the dentist. Jennifer: You mustn’t eat too much dessert, especially doughnutsand chocolate cakes. Maggie: Yes, I think so, too. I need to go to the drugstore first. Jennifer: I forgot how terrifying it was to visit the dentist last time. Maggie: By the way, do you want to go to the fast food restaurantwith me next Friday night? Jennifer: Sure. Wait until your tooth stops hurting. 必備單字 1. dentist [ˋdɛntɪst] 牙醫(n) （國中基礎1200字） 2. dessert [dɪˋzɝt] 甜點(n) （國中基礎1200字） 3. doughnut [ ˈdəʊˌnʌt ] 甜甜圈(n) （國中基礎1200字） 4. drugstore [ˋdrʌgstor] 藥局(n) （國中基礎1200字） 5. especially [ɪˈspeʃəli] 特別、尤其、格外(adv) （國中基礎1200字） 6. fast food restaurant [ˋfæst
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