Saliva, the natural liquid formed inside an animal’s mouth, has some surprising uses. For example, saliva contains special enzymes, amylase and lipase, which break down some of the starches and fats that can form solid, sticky materials. Thus, saliva helps __1__ food as soon as it enters the mouth. In addition, the slightly warm and acidic __2__ of this natural liquid have a particular benefit in one of the least likely environments.
That environment is the workshop of an art museum. Priceless antique paintings accumulate dust and dirt over time, causing darker and less colorful surfaces. The problem for conservators, trained specialists who clean and preserve artworks, is how to __3__ the built-up grime safely. They have many tools at their __4__. Surprisingly, human saliva is one of them.
Since human saliva is no-cost, sustainable, and non-toxic, it is ideally __5__ as a cleaning agent. Working patiently and carefully, a conservator can slowly remove accumulation of grime from a surface. Thus, the artwork’s __6__ paint colors can be seen just as they were when first painted.
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Traditionally, a layer of varnish was applied to paintings as a protective coating. The varnish not only protects the colors from __7__ but also acts as a surface for small particles to stick to. In most cases, a surface that has been varnished is easier for the conservator to clean than one that hasn’t. Saliva, as it turns out, is one of the best __8__ for cleaning varnished artwork.
Art workshops are not the only surprising places where saliva shows its __9__. Soldiers in their barracks can tell you that the best shine one can make on a hard leather boot is by __10__ spit onto just-applied boot polish. If treated properly, the boot can be so shiny that you can even see your reflection in it !
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What Did You Learn?
(A) suited (B) substances (C) fading (D) digest (E) disposal (F) rubbing (G) usefulness (H) qualities (I) original (J) eliminate
1. ( D ) 2. ( H ) 3. ( J ) 4. (E ) 5. ( A )
6. ( I ) 7. ( C ) 8. ( B ) 9. ( G ) 10. ( F )
Words in Use
1. spit vi. 吐口水 & n. 口水
Ed cleared his throat and spat on the ground.
Olivia used a tissue to wipe the spit off the baby’s chin.
2. benefit n. 好處，益處
The discovery of oil brought many benefits to the small town. 石油的發現為這個小鎮帶來了諸多好處。
3. antique a. 古董的
It is said that the antique vase was made during the Ming dynasty. 據說該古董花瓶是明朝年間所製。
4. accumulate vt. 累積
accumulation n. 積累，堆積
Josh has accumulated considerable experience in marketing after working in that field for 10 years.
After snowing all night, there’s a great accumulation of snow outside. 在下了一整晚的雪後，外面已經堆積了一層厚厚的雪。
5. preserve vt. 維護，保存
It is important to preserve natural resources.
1. break down... / break... down 分解…
The acid in our stomachs helps break down the food we eat.
2. a layer of... 一層的…
There was a layer of dust on my windowsill.
3. apply A to B 將A塗抹在B上
The mother applied sunscreen to her children’s skin before they went to the beach.
4. act as 充當
An umbrella can act as a cane when you go hiking in the mountains.
Teams of scientists around the world have recently demonstrated the viability of airborne and waterborne DNA collection. The methods, which permit the analysis of large samples of soil, air or water for genetic material, rely on the concept of environmental DNA. This “eDNA” is found in the innumerable particles of biological matter that creatures shed as they go about their lives. While these tiny scraps are invisible to the naked eye, eDNA tests can reveal a wealth of information to researchers. For example, wildlife managers in the Susquehanna River system in Pennsylvania, US detected Didymosphenia geminata DNA through eDNA
網球天王費德勒（Roger Federer）於上週四（15日）宣布引退，為長達二十四年的職業生涯畫下了句點。回顧過去，他曾經贏得二十個大滿貫冠軍，與對手喬克維奇、納達爾合稱「網壇三巨頭」，如今這名年屆四十一歲的傳奇即將引退，令許多球迷感到不捨。今天就讓我們從他的引退宣言，來學TOEIC測驗的常考英文吧！ acknowledge 認可、承認 費德勒在Twitter上發聲明宣布退休，其中一段這樣感謝他的團隊： I really want to thank and acknowledge my amazing team. . . who have given me the best advice and have always been there for me. （我真的想要感謝和認可我優秀的團隊…，你們給予我最棒的建議，且一直陪伴著我。） acknowledge解釋為「認可」，單字來自於knowledge「知識」，字首「ac-」有「朝向某方向」的意思，代表come to understand or recognize 的意思，因此就是「認可、承認」。 acknowledge 後面加上動名詞，表達「承認做了」某件事情。動詞後面加上動名詞表達已經做了某件事情，其他常見動詞還有forget。forget 後方加上to V 則表達忘記做某件事情。 She acknowledged having been at fault.（她承認自己有做錯。） She forgot turning on the TV.（她忘記已經開了電視。） She forgot to turn on the TV.（她忘記要開電視了。） acknowledge + that acknowledge 加上 that 名詞子句的用法，則代表「承認」某件事情。 She acknowledged that she had been at fault.（她承認自己有過錯。） All I want is some acknowledgment that his behavior is unreasonable. （我只要你們承認他的行為是無理取鬧就好。） 名詞變化acknowledgment 則是去掉 e 並在字尾加上「-ment 」。 We sent her a copy of the book in acknowledgment of her part in its creation. （我們寄給她一本書，以感謝她為這本書的問世所做的貢獻。） 片語in acknowledgement of代表「認可某件事情」，除了動詞加上受詞的用法，也可以採用名詞變化。若用動詞改寫則是We sent
A: Wow, look at that drone in the sky! B: Drones have become increasingly common in recent years. Walmart, Amazon and other companies have all begun promoting drone delivery services. A: Chunghwa Post is also providing this service. B: Really? A: Currently, Hsinchu County’s Jianshih Township post office is trialing parcel delivery to remote villages by unmanned aerial vehicles. B: That’s fantastic. It will make it much more convenient to post things to mountainous areas. A: 哇你看，天空中有一架無人機！ B: 這幾年無人機好像越來越普遍，沃爾瑪、亞馬遜等公司，都開始推出了無人機送貨服務。 A: 其實中華郵政也有這項服務唷。 B: 真的嗎？ A: 新竹縣尖石鄉的郵局，正在試辦無人機偏鄉物流運送。 B: 太棒了，以後寄東西到山區就方便多啦。 （Translated by Edward Jones, Taipei Times／台北時報張聖恩）
Hsinchu post office launches drone delivery (2/2) 新竹郵局無人機起飛（二） A: Chunghwa Post is using drones to deliver parcels. This should save loads of time. B: Delivering a parcel from Jianshih Township Office to Smangus normally takes 100 minutes by road. A drone can do it in just 45. A: That’s super convenient! B: With drones becoming more common, the government has amended the Civil Aviation Act to require large drones to be registered. A: How many drones have been registered to date? B: Nearly 80,000 in Taiwan, since the act was amended 2 years ago. A: 郵局用無人機來送貨，應該能節省不少時間。 B: 從尖石鄉公所送貨到新光部落，原本一百分鐘的車程，無人機只需要四十五分鐘。 A: 真的超方便耶！ B: 不過無人機越來越多，政府特別修改《民用航空法》，所有大型無人機都要註冊管理。 A: 有很多無人機註冊嗎？ B: 修法兩年以來，台灣已經有將近八萬架註冊囉。 （Translated by