Welcome to Sunday Science! Every Sunday during the summer, we’re going to guide you through some cool experiments that you can do at home. It’s a good idea for you to keep a record of what you do in a Science Journal. That way you can record what you learn, compare results and maybe use them to design new experiments! Have a look at the Science Journal box for some ideas to get you started. Remember to always ask a grown-up’s permission before trying out an experiment.
Making a volcano 動手作火山
What you will need:
An empty water bottle
Bicarbonate of soda (baking soda)
Food coloring (red)
A tray (to put everything on)
A cup or pouring jug
A funnel (if you don’t have one at home, you can make one from cardboard covered with tinfoil or use a pouring jug to add the ingredients)
Some sand or modeling clay (optional)
* Place the newspaper over your working surface.
* Put the tray on the newspaper. Put your empty bottle in the middle of the tray and put the funnel in the neck of the bottle.
* Use the spoon to put baking soda in the bottle. Put in enough to cover the bottom of the bottle well. If you are using glitter add this too.
* If you are using sand or modeling clay, shape it around the bottle (to about 3/4 of the way up) to make it look like a volcano or mountain.
* In the cup or jug combine 1/4 cup of vinegar, two big drops of dish soap and a couple of drops of food coloring (be careful food coloring can stain clothes).
* Pour the mixture into the bottle and watch what happens!
Don’t forget to record what happens in your Science Journal.
What do you know about bicarbonate of soda? What is it used for in your house? What happens if you mix it with water? What do you know about vinegar? What can it be used for at home? Does water mix with vinegar? What about dish soap? What happens if you mix it with water? How about if you try mixing dish soap with vinegar? What about bicarbonate of soda with dish soap?
1. volcano n.
火山 (huo3 shan1)
2. pour n.
傾倒 (qing1 dao4)，倒入 (dao4 ru4)
3. funnel n.
漏斗 (lou4 dou3)
4. shape v.t
塑形 (su4 xing2)
5. drop n.
6. chemical reaction n. phr.
化學反應 (hua4 xue2 fan3 ying4)
7. carbon dioxide n.
二氧化碳 (er4 yang3 hua4 tan4)
8. expand v.i./v.t
擴張 (kuo4 zhang1)，膨脹 (peng2 zhang4)
9. all-purpose n. phr.
萬用的 (wan4 yong4 de5)
10. cleaner n.
清潔劑 (qing1 jie2 ji4)
The baking soda and the vinegar have a chemical reaction. The reaction creates carbon dioxide (the same gas that you breathe out and trees breathe in). The carbon dioxide expands, so it needs to escape the bottle. This is why the carbon dioxide goes out of the neck of the bottle, pushing the mixture along with it.
A mixture of bicarbonate of soda, dish soap and vinegar is a really good all-purpose household cleaner. It’s good for the environment too. You can make it smell good by adding a couple of drops of lemon juice. Don’t include the food coloring though!
Try the experiment again without the dish soap. What changes? Try adding more or less Bicarbonate of soda. Does it change the result? How about if you change the amount of vinegar? Don’t forget to record your observations in your Science Journal.
For next Sunday’s experiment you will need the following special items: A cereal box (or stiff paper), a paper or plastic cup , a balloon (a long skinny one), a long piece of fishing line (or smooth string).
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