Mon, Dec 11, 2017

Pollution fund likely to be readjusted

Premier William Lai (賴清德) is likely to distribute more revenue from the air pollution tax to local governments, a source at the Executive Yuan said, adding that a decision might be reached after Lai meets with mayors and county commissioners tomorrow. Lai is to meet local representatives ...FULL STORY

USING IDIOMS
活 用 成 語

Chinese practice 有備無患 (you3 bei4 wu2 huan4) preparedness averts peril 《左傳》是對春秋時代(西元前七二二~四八一年)中國政治與軍事的一系列評論。其中記載了晉國丞相魏絳對晉侯的建言「居安思危,思則有備,有備則無患」──在平安的環境中,也要想到危險出現的可能;有此考慮,就會有所準備;有了準備,就可避免禍患。 魏絳這句建言是兩句成語的出處:「居安思危」和「有備無患」。「有備無患」也出現在年代更早的《尚書》的〈說命中〉一章。 《尚書》記載,殷高宗武丁繼位後,即便其父王的守喪期已過,他還是對自己的統治能力缺乏信心,因此遲遲未向大臣們下達指令。後來武丁做了一個夢,夢見上帝賜給他輔佐的賢臣。他醒來後,仍記得那人長相的種種細節,因此派人去尋找他夢中所見的那個人。在一個叫傅巖的偏遠地方,找到了一個名叫「說」(發音同「月」)的人,正符合武丁的描述。武丁於是立傅說為丞相。〈說命中〉記載了傅說在就職時說的話,其中包括用人唯才的重要,他說: 「官不及私昵,惟其能;爵罔及惡德,惟其賢。」(授人官職,不能因為他是親信,而是要看他的能力;不可讓德性不佳的人任高位要職,只有賢能的人才可。) 他也說要做好準備,以避免災禍: 「惟事事,乃其有備,有備無患。」(任何事都要做好準備,有了準備,就沒有禍患。) 英文諺語「forewarned is forearmed」的概念並非新創,早在拉丁文中,就有意義類似的諺語「praemonitus, praemunitus」(有備無患)──這句話在當時是軍事方面的用語,現今則常當做是座右銘(例如澳洲陸軍情報部隊的隊訓)。字首prae同pre,意為「之前」、「事先」,例如英文presume、predict、prefix等字。「monitus」是拉丁文,意為「警告」,相關的字有admonishment、monitor、premonition等。而「munitu」意為加強的,munitions和ammunition皆為相關的字。 在「forewarned is forearmed」這句話中,forearmed這個字跟作名詞用的forearm(前臂)並無關聯。forearmed一字是介詞fore(如before)和arm(如作動詞的「武裝」之意)的結合。forewarned...FULL STORY

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