The revelation that a former commander of a Nazi SS-led military unit has lived quietly in the US for the past six decades came as a shock to people who knew him, prompted harsh condemnations from World War II survivors in the US and Europe and led prosecutors in Poland to say they would investigate.
His family said he was “never a Nazi.”
An Associated Press (AP) investigation found that 94-year-old Michael Karkoc served as a top commander in the Ukrainian Self-Defense Legion during World War II. The unit is accused of wartime atrocities, including the burning of villages filled with women and children. Wartime records do not show that Karkoc had a direct hand in war crimes, though records indicate he lied about his military past when immigrating to the US.
Late on Friday, Karkoc’s son, Andriy Karkos, read a statement accusing the AP of defaming Karkoc. He pointed to the portion of the AP story that said records don not show Karkoc had a direct hand in war crimes.
“That’s the god’s honest truth,” Karkos said. “My father was never a Nazi.”
Karkos said the family would not comment further until it has obtained its own documents and reviewed witnesses and sources.
“I know him personally. We talk, laugh. He takes care of his yard and walks with his wife,” his next-door neighbor in Minnesota, Gordon Gnasdoskey, said on Friday.
Gnasdoskey, the grandson of a Ukrainian immigrant himself, said he was disturbed by the revelations.
Sam Rafowitz, an 88-year-old Jewish resident, grew up in Warsaw, Poland, and spent four years in concentration camps. He took a hard line after hearing the news about Karkoc.
“I think they should put him on trial,” Rafowitz said.
Poland’s National Remembrance Institute, which prosecutes wartime crimes, said its prosecutors would investigate Karkoc’s “possible role” in crimes committed by the legion and would provide “every possible assistance” in gathering evidence for the US justice system.
Karkoc’s unit was associated with the 1944 Warsaw uprising, in which Nazis brutally suppressed a Polish rebellion against German occupation. Karkoc lied to US immigration officials to get into the US, telling authorities in 1949 that he had performed no military service during the war. He became a naturalized US citizen in 1959.
In Washington, US Department of Justice spokesman Michael Passman said the agency was aware of the AP story.
News of Karkoc’s past prompted anger from World War II survivors overseas, in countries where the Ukrainian Self-Defense Legion was active.
In Poland, Honorata Banach told the AP she wants Karkoc to apologize. She was 20 when she fled the Polish village of Chlaniow before it was burned down by the legion.
“There was so much suffering, so many orphans, so much pain,” Banach said.
She and her mother returned the day after the attack, she said, to see that “everything was burned down, even the fences, the trees. I could not even find my house.”
Survivors told her the Ukrainian legion did it, she said.
Rafowitz said he lost his mother and other relatives at the Majadenk concentration camp in Lublin, in German-occupied Poland. He said soldiers in the camp were German, but that it was run by Ukrainians.
“You don’t forget,” Rafowitz said. “For me, it’s been almost close to 70 years those things happened, but I still know about it. I still remember everything.”