Long lines of undocumented immigrants sprang up across the US on Wednesday as thousands took advantage of US President Barack Obama’s decision to grant many of them temporary residency.
Authorities have begun accepting applications for deferred deportations from undocumented immigrants brought here as children, many of whom consider the US home — an initiative that could benefit up to 1.7 million people.
Obama’s critics accuse him of pandering to Hispanic voters ahead of his re-election battle against Republican challenger Mitt Romney, but he insists it is a “humane” gesture that will allow law enforcement to focus on criminals.
“I am the only undocumented person in my family and now I have a little more confidence that I will not be separated from them,” said Mirna Orozco, a 22-year-old Mexican who has lived in the US for the past 18 years.
“Childhood arrivals who meet the guidelines and whose cases are deferred will now be able to live without fear of removal and be able to more fully contribute their talents to our great nation,” US Citizenship and Immigration Services head Alejandro Mayorkas said.
The Obama administration defends the measure as a practical step that will allow US immigration law enforcement to focus on deporting people with criminal records.
The administration backs a more comprehensive immigration reform initiative — the so-called Dream Act — but the measure has failed to pass the US Congress because of opposition from Republicans, who brand it an “amnesty.”
“This is the first big victory in the immigration area in many decades,” University of California at Los Angeles sociologist Octavio Pescador said.
“There is great prejudice against undocumented migrants. They are known as ‘illegals’ and that connotation leads one to think of criminals,” he said.
The US government estimates that more than 800,000 people are currently eligible to apply. However, outside experts place the number at 1 million, with another 700,000 to become eligible when they reach the minimum age of 15.
Beneficiaries of the move — known as “Dreamers” after the act that was defeated in Congress — can get their deportation deferred for two years on a renewable basis and become eligible for temporary work permits.
Most of the estimated 11.5 million undocumented immigrants in the US are from Latin America.
Of the young “Dreamers,” 68 percent come from Mexico; 13 percent from Canada, the Caribbean and central America; and 7 percent from South America — meaning 88 percent are from the Americas, according to the non-partisan US Immigration Policy Center.
Only 8 percent come from Asia, 2 percent from Europe and 2 percent from other regions, according to the center’s data.
Supportive officials and advocacy groups held briefings nationwide on Wednesday to explain the process to prospective applicants, insisting that they would not risk arrest and deportation by applying.
“Happy deferred action day everyone!” tweeted America’s Voice, an advocacy group for immigration reform.
At the National Immigration Forum in the US capital, Washington, Nathaly Montano Vargas, a 17-year-old Bolivian who came to the country in 2001, filled out forms with help from lawyers and volunteers.
“We don’t yet feel that this is real. My heart will not start beating again until this has actually happened,” she said.
“We are here to demonstrate that there is no harm in applying,” added Montano Vargas, who hopes to study medicine.
The US Citizenship and Immigration Services has said the information submitted will not be shared with law enforcement unless the individual is wanted for a crime or considered a national security threat.
Officials caution that applicants must pay a US$465 fee and that the process could take several months to complete.