Anwar was former Malaysian prime minister Mahathir Mohamed’s deputy in the late 1990s during the Asian financial crisis. As finance minister he gave speeches citing Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter’s theory of creative destruction. In the case of Southeast Asia, that meant countries would emerge stronger from the financial downturn, Anwar said.
Mahathir disagreed. In 1998, he fired Anwar, pegged the currency and imposed capital controls.
Within a month, Anwar was arrested. He spent the next six years in prison on convictions for abuse of power and sodomy, and was released in 2004 after Mahathir retired and a Malaysian judge overturned the guilty verdict for having sex with a man.