Efforts to build up the Afghan government have not focused on its ability to provide emergency relief.
“All the money that has gone here has not prioritized the safety nets and social services that are required, and the institutions associated with that,” Bowden said.
Nor are the challenges of surviving the winter confined to Kabul. Many in remote villages or traveling on exposed roads are also vulnerable, but struggle to get support.
Up to 10 people froze to death waiting to cross into Pakistan last week when the border closed temporarily over a haulage dispute, Afghan officials said.