Strong, light and cheaper than steel poles, bamboo is ubiquitous across Asia as scaffolding.
In recognition of the material’s versatility, Bali has made it an emblem of sustainable construction, replacing buildings of concrete and steel with “greener” alternatives.
An entire school, luxury villas and even a chocolate factory are the latest structures to rise from bamboo skeletons as the plant’s green credentials and strength are lauded.
The factory is the latest in a string of buildings on the island to be built of bamboo. It was erected in the village of Sibang Kaja between the island’s smoggy capital Denpasar and the forests of Ubud, the factory is the initiative of specialty food firm Big Tree Farms, which claims the 2,550m2 facility is the biggest commercial bamboo building in the world.
“Bamboo is unmatched as a sustainable building material. What it can do is remarkable,” Big Tree Farms co-founder Ben Ripple said.
“It grows far more quickly than timber and doesn’t destroy the land it’s grown on,” Ripple said. “Our factory can be packed up and moved in days, so if we decided to shut it down one day, we’re not going to damage the rice paddies we sit on.”
The 100 hectares of paddies sit inside a so-called “bamboo triangle,” with the factory, school and villas standing at each of the three points.
Such ambitious bamboo projects in Bali are mostly driven by eco-conscious foreigners.
With studies showing construction to be one of the world’s least sustainable industries — eating up around half the globe’s non-renewable resources — sustainable construction is slowly taking root around the world.
It is among the key topics for discussion at the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development, which starts on June 20 in Rio de Janeiro.
In Sibang, the tawny brown bamboo buildings with their grass thatched roofs appear to be rising from the earth.
The three-floor chocolate factory is pieced together using a complex system of scissor trusses and bolts, thanks to clever architecture.
It resembles the traditional longhouses found on Borneo Island and was made with more than 18,000m of bamboo from Bali and Java.
At Sibang’s nearby Green School, the 240 students — most of them children of expatriates — learn in semi-outdoor classrooms decked with bamboo furniture.
The school, which opened in 2008 and was the magnet for the other two projects, has 25 bamboo buildings, the main one being a stilt structure constructed with 2,500 bamboo poles, or culms.
“In Hong Kong and China, they make new skyscrapers of concrete and glass using bamboo scaffolding. But here, the workmen stood on steel scaffolding to build this bamboo building. That’s always seemed funny to me,” Green School admissions head Ben Macrory said. “In most parts of Asia, bamboo is seen as the poor man’s timber.”
Not, however, in Sibang, where the bamboo villas that nestle between the palm trees are worth US$350,000 to US$700,000 each.
Like decadent treehouses for adults, they have semi-outdoor areas and include innovative bamboo flooring that resembles smooth timber and jellybean-shaped coffee tables made from thin bamboo slats.
Bamboo — technically a grass — has been used in building for centuries because of its impressive strength-to-weight ratio.
Jules Janssen, an authority on bamboo in the Netherlands, says that the weight of a 5,000kg elephant can be supported by a short bamboo stub with a surface area of just 10cm2.