Until just a few weeks ago, the “hoodie” was seen as just another article of clothing, a favorite garment of rumpled US teenagers and casually clad vacationers.
However, the popular cloth jacket with attached hood has become a subject of controversy — as well as a badge of protest and outrage — following the fatal shooting in late February of a hoodie-wearing African-American youth by a community watch volunteer.
Since the death of 17-year-old Trayvon Martin, there have been scores of protests across the US — many with hoodie-wearing demonstrators — demanding justice for the slain youth.
Protesters have been calling for the arrest and prosecution of the shooter, George Zimmerman, against whom police in the Florida town of Sanford have so far decided not to press charges.
This past week, US Representative Bobby Rush staged one of the most visible protests, removing his suit jacket on the floor of the House of Representatives to reveal a hoodie, lifting the hood over his head. He also put on a pair of sunglasses.
“Racial profiling has to stop,” he declared on the House floor.
“Just because someone wears a hoodie does not make them a hoodlum,” he said, before being escorted out of the chamber for violating the congressional dress code that bars lawmakers from wearing hats on the floor.
There was a similar protest in California’s state legislature when lawmakers in the capital Sacramento donned hoodies to urge the federal government to conduct a thorough probe of the shooting.
Martin’s fatal shooting has become another flashpoint in the US’ recurring debate over race and colorblindness — or the lack of it — in the US criminal justice system.
Many African-Americans and civil rights leaders have called it a case of racial profiling: In calls to a police emergency number on the night of the shooting, Zimmerman, 28, described a black male wearing a hoodie and looking “real suspicious.”
Fox News commentator Geraldo Rivera said that Martin died because of what he was wearing.
“His hoodie killed Trayvon Martin as surely as George Zimmerman did,” the journalist said, arguing that a “kid of color” wearing a hoodie ignites certain feelings of “scorn” and “menace.”
Steven Bradford, a member of the California State Assembly, who took part in the protest by lawmakers there, said that a double standard is at work.
“How can a young man with nothing more than candy in his hand and a soft drink be gunned down, and now be accused of causing his death simply by what he was wearing?” he said, referring to how Martin had just bought Skittles fruit-flavored sweets and iced tea before the killing.
Princeton University sociology professor Angel Harris said that while Martin likely was singled out for his skin color, the hoodie he was wearing might also have been a factor.
“It’s what has come to be associated with urban black youth,” Harris said. “When a black young person is dressed in that manner, it triggers the stereotypes and perceptions — high poverty, crime, things like that.”
“A larger dialogue needs to be had about the nature of stereotyping, and people’s own unconscious biases,” he said.
Johns Hopkins University professor Lester Spence said the hoodie has galvanized public attention — both positive and negative — because it is a graphic, yet readily accessible symbol. However, he said it would be simplistic to think that the hoodie trumps the issue of race in this incident.