More than a half-century after US federal troops escorted nine black American students into an all-white school in Little Rock, Arkansas, efforts to desegregate the classrooms of this southern US city are at another turning point.
The state wants to end its long-running payments for desegregation programs — which date back to the era when schools were segregated by law in the south.
However, three school districts that receive the money say they need it to continue key programs, and a US federal judge has accused the schools of delaying desegregation so they can keep receiving an annual infusion of US$70 million.
A federal appeals court will hear arguments today from both sides. The judges are expected to decide eventually whether Arkansas still has to make the payments and whether two of the districts should remain under court supervision.
The schools, which serve about 50,000 students, have come a long way since 1957, when the governor and hundreds of protesters famously tried to stop the nine black students, known as the Little Rock Nine, from entering Central High School. However, thousands of white and black children still have to be bused to different neighborhoods every day under one of the US’ largest remaining court-ordered desegregation systems.
Now parents are worried about the schools’ future and some are considering enrolling their children elsewhere.
The districts argue that desegregation should be about giving parents options between good schools, not strictly counting the number of white and black students.
“Anybody can put students on a bus,” said Bobby Acklin, assistant superintendent for desegregation at the North Little Rock School District. “It doesn’t matter to me who’s in the school, as long as we have a good program.”
State lawmakers have long derided the payments and Arkansas Governor Mike Beebe and other officials have pushed to end the practice, too.
The battle over school desegregation persisted for decades after the US Civil Rights Movement. In 1982, the city schools sued two neighboring districts and the state for not doing enough to help with desegregation.
Two years later, a federal judge ruled that those districts had wrongfully separated white and black students. In 1989, the schools and the state reached a settlement that required large payments to the Little Rock, North Little Rock and Pulaski County districts. It is still in effect today.
Some Little Rock schools remain as segregated as the neighborhoods around them. And achieving racial balance is becoming more difficult as families leave the suburbs that supply white students to schools in majority-black city neighborhoods. Despite years of efforts, black students still score much lower on tests than white students.
The settlement did establish popular magnet schools in urban Little Rock, but the money has also been a source of constant controversy. District administrators have fought over how to spend the money. Arkansas Attorney General Dustin McDaniel has alleged the districts use desegregation funding elsewhere in their budgets.
In May, a federal judge accused the North Little Rock and Pulaski County districts of delaying desegregation to keep getting state money.
US District Judge Brian Miller pointed to problems with student achievement and discipline, particularly in Pulaski County, a suburban district that takes in black students from Little Rock and North Little Rock and sends white children to both.