A hunting boom driven by wealthy tourists is pushing black South Africans off the land to make way for game, generating anger that, a decade after apartheid, whites still own most of the countryside.
Hundreds of commercial farms have evicted their laborers and converted into game parks, turning swaths of arable land into fenced wilderness for trophy animals such as lions and antelos a pretext to get rid of black workers whom they blame for a surge of theft and violent crime in rural areas since white minority rule ended in 1994.
Groups representing laborers say the evictions are a continuation of colonial and apartheid-era dispossession, and that the time has come to expropriate white-owned land.
"Game parks are mushrooming too much. They bring hunger to the people. People are becoming angry," said Mangaliso Kubheka, a national organizer for an activist group, the Landless People's Movement. Kubheka is himself facing eviction from a farm in Ingogo, in KwaZulu-Natal province, where his family has tilled maize and pumpkin over three generations for white owners.
In return, the laborers were given a plot of land of their own to cultivate rent-free, but that arrangement is threatened by the farmer's plan to replace them with wildlife, which wealthy foreigners pay handsomely to shoot.
"If we wanted to go to the township, we would have gone long ago, but we are happy here. It's our home," said Kubheka, 48. He showed a clearing with more than a dozen piles of rocks and engravings: the graves of siblings, parents and grandparents.
The farmer, a white Afrikaner, was unavailable for comment. But neighboring farmers confirmed that they too were in the process of switching to game parks.
Each year about 600,000 hectares of land is fenced off for hunting or conservation, said Theuns Eloff, a wildlife economist and professor at North West University. Most visitors come from western Europe and north America.
KwaZulu-Natal is especially prolific. Since 1999 the number of game parks has doubled to 139, and they now encompass 260,957 hectares, according to Stoffel de Jaeger, a hunting manager for the provincial wildlife authority.
Both men welcomed the boom as high-end eco-tourism which generated foreign currency and created more jobs for guides, drivers, cooks and cleaners than were lost in laboring.
One successful convert, Dennis Gehren, said his game park employed 19 people -- compared with four laborers when his land was a farm.
Analysts welcome the economic boost from hunting, but worried that the evictions could stoke political and social tension. Black South Africans were forbidden from owning land under apartheid, and thousands were evicted from ancestral regions to make way for white settlers.
This is supposed to be the era of redressing that injustice, and transferring commercial farmland to create a new class of black farmers. But a decade after the African National Congress took power 80 percent of farmland is still owned by whites, and the government target of putting 30 percent of agricultural land into black hands by 2014 is slipping.