“Kobayashi hit me from behind today and that was my race over,” Rosberg said.
“The one small positive to be taken from the weekend is our qualifying performance, which was a small step forward,” he said.
Germany’s Nico Hulkenberg was sixth for Force India with Frenchman Romain Grosjean, steering well clear of trouble after a spate of first-lap smashes, seventh for Lotus.
Frenchman Jean-Eric Vergne was eighth for Toro Rosso, with Australian teammate Daniel Ricciardo ninth.
Hamilton, who had a ripped-off strip of astroturf trailing from a sidepod in the closing laps, just kept off Sauber’s Mexican Sergio Perez — the man who replaces him at McLaren next season — for 10th place after starting third.