Sat, Sep 14, 2019 - Page 14 News List

Bauhaus school of design marks 100th anniversary
德國包浩斯創校一百週年 新博物館落成

Clouds reflect in the facade of the new Bauhaus Museum in Dessau, Germany, on Sept. 7.
德國德紹市新開幕的包浩斯博物館,建築外的玻璃帷幕反映著天空的雲彩。攝於九月七日。

Photo: AP
照片:美聯社

The eastern German city of Dessau marked the 100th anniversary of the Bauhaus school of design Sunday with the opening of a new museum featuring a collection of exhibits and objects that tie in with the movement’s iconic buildings.

The city was the school’s second home after it moved from Weimar, and the new museum building was designed by Barcelona’s addenda architects to interface with the city and nature.

Described as a “soaring concrete block enveloped in glass” in the heart of Dessau, “depending on the light, the surroundings are reflected more or less strongly in the glass facade or enable views through the building,’’ the museum said.

Rather than focusing on iconic designs and masters, the museum said the emphasis instead is the school and the students.

Bauhaus was founded in Weimar in 1919 under architect Walter Gropius as Germany grappled with its political future after World War I.

Once the Bauhaus school fell afoul of right-leaning local authorities in Weimar, who had long been suspicious of its unconventional students and teachers, its funding was slashed in 1925. That forced it to move northeast to Dessau, where the iconic glass-fronted Bauhaus headquarters and a residential estate with 90 apartments were built.

Dessau’s Nazi-dominated council forced the Bauhaus to close in 1932, and an attempt to keep it going in Berlin lasted only a few months.

(AP)

為慶祝包浩斯設計學院創校一百週年,一座新博物館上週日在德國東部城市德紹開幕,館內陳列一系列展覽及物件,與包浩斯運動的代表性建築相結合。

德紹是包浩斯學院搬離威瑪後的第二個落腳處,新博物館的建築連結了城市與自然,是由西班牙巴塞隆那的Addenda Architects建築師事務所設計。

博物館位於德紹市中心,其建築被形容為「有玻璃外殼的高聳混凝土砌塊」;館方表示,「隨著光線的變化,建築周遭的景象或強或弱地反映在玻璃帷幕牆上,有時又讓人可從外面看進建築內部」。

包浩斯的經典設計與大師並非該館之重點,它所聚焦的是包浩斯學院及學生。

一九一九年,第一次世界大戰後的德國正陷入政治權力鬥爭,包浩斯此時在建築師華特‧葛羅培斯的領導下,創校於威瑪。

包浩斯學院師生不符傳統的作風,早就被右傾的威瑪政府視為眼中釘,一九二五年威瑪政府在與包浩斯發生衝突後,便砍了包浩斯的經費。於是包浩斯被迫遷校,往東北搬到德紹,在那裡蓋出包浩斯的經典建築──外層為玻璃帷幕的包浩斯校舍,以及有九十戶的住宅區。

由納粹主導的德紹市議會,迫使包浩斯在一九三二年關閉;包浩斯之後嘗試在柏林復校,但僅僅維持了數個月。

(台北時報林俐凱譯)

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