Sun, Aug 11, 2019 - Page 9 News List

Even in cities, natural signs can warn of floods
原住民的智慧 自然徵兆警示洪水來襲

Platic waste is being carried by the current along a submerged road following floods in the Galadimawa area of Abuja, Nigeria, on Aug. 2
洪水沿著被淹沒的道路帶來塑膠垃圾,八月二日攝於奈及利亞首都阿布加的格拉迪馬瓦區。

Photo: AFP
照片:法新社

Indigenous knowledge about how to spot flood risks ahead of time could save lives in cities, researchers said on Wednesday, as climate change and population growth put millions of people at risk of increasingly unpredictable weather patterns. Understanding changes in natural indicators — such as plants, birds and temperatures — could be used to alert urban residents to extreme weather where forecasts are seen as unreliable, said a study in the Journal of the British Academy.

“Indigenous knowledge is often overlooked,” said Caroline Knowles, director of the cities and infrastructure programme at the British Academy, the UK’s national body for humanities and social sciences. “There are knowledge transfers that can be made between rural and peri-urban spaces that could save lives and livelihoods around the world,” she told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

The study interviewed 1,050 people in 21 rural and urban communities in Ghana, including the capital city Accra and the main city of Tamale in its Northern Region. Researchers documented natural indicators used by indigenous communities to predict floods, droughts and temperature changes. Those include links between rainfall patterns and ant behavior, appearances by certain birds, flowering of baobab trees and observations of heat intensity, passed down between generations.

Knowles said not all rural indicators could be transferred to urban spaces, but some are relevant for both environments, such as clouds, heat, insects and trees. Promoting tree-planting in urban areas could offer further opportunities to apply indigenous knowledge on flora in cities, said study author Raymond Abudu Kasei from Ghana’s University for Development Studies.

TODAY’S WORDS
今日單字

1. indigenous adj.

原住民的

(yuan2 zhu4 min2 de5)

2. pattern n.

模式(mo2 shi4)

3. indicator n.

指標(zhi3 biao1)

4. alert v.

提高警覺

(ti2 gao1 jing3 jue2)

5. rural adj.

鄉村的;農村的

(xiang1 cun1 de5; nong2 cun1 de5)

6. mitigate v.

減緩、減輕

(jian2 huan3, jian3 qing1)


More than 3 million urban dwellers could be at risk of flooding from extreme rainfall by 2050 as climate change brings more unpredictable weather hazards, the study said. Extreme heat and power blackouts, alongside food and water shortages, are other threats if climate-changing emissions are not curbed, a report for the C40 cities network found last year.

As floods become more sudden and hard to predict, the inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science-based warning systems should be prioritized, researchers said this week. “We have seen the use of indigenous knowledge for climate adaptation all over the world,” said Stefan Thorsell, climate advisor at the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, who was not involved in the study.

“Indigenous people in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Myanmar and Ethiopia, for example, use their knowledge to observe and mitigate impacts of extreme climate events such as flooding and droughts,” he added. Dialogue is needed between indigenous groups and climate researchers as “both can learn from one another,” said Knowles.

Indigenous knowledge can be used as an “added layer” to scientific research in designing early warning systems for floods, said Kasei. More work is needed to document traditional knowledge at risk of being lost as the natural environments in which indigenous peoples live become more threatened by climate-related disasters, the study noted.

(Reuters)

隨著氣候變遷與人口增長,使得數百萬人暴露在愈趨無法預測的天氣模式風險中。不過,研究人員於週三表示,關於如何提前辨識出洪水風險的原住民知識也許可以拯救城市裡的芸芸眾生。這篇發表於《英國國家學術院期刊》的研究指出,對於自然界指標變化的理解──例如植物、鳥類或溫度,能用來提醒都市居民對極端天氣提高警覺,特別是在預報已顯得不可靠的極端情況。

英國國家學術院是英國的國家級人文學科與社會科學研究機構,其中的都市與基礎建設研究計畫主持人卡洛琳‧瑙爾斯指出:「原住民知識經常受到忽視。」她向湯森‧路透基金會解釋:「農村和都市週邊地區之間可以進行知識轉移,藉以拯救世界各地的生命和人們的生計。」

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