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YouTube updates hate speech guidelines to prohibit videos
防堵仇恨影片 YouTube 更新條款

Silhouettes of mobile device users are seen next to a screen projection of YouTube logo in this picture illustration taken March 28, 2018.
兩人在投影有YouTube標誌的屏幕前,使用可攜式電腦。攝於二○一八年三月二十八日。

Photo: Reuters
照片:路透

YouTube updated its hate speech policies on June 5 to prohibit videos with white supremacy and neo-Nazi viewpoints.

The video streaming company says it has already made it more difficult to find and promote such videos, but it’s now removing them outright. YouTube will also prohibit videos that deny certain proven events have taken place, such as the Holocaust.

The changes come as YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and other online services face mounting concern that the services allow, and in some cases foster, extremism.

YouTube’s new policies will take effect immediately. Specifically, the service is banning videos “alleging that a group is superior in order to justify discrimination, segregation or exclusion.” The ban applies to a range of characteristics, including race, sexual orientation and veteran status.

YouTube, which is owned by Google, said it’s removing thousands of channels that violate the new policies.

YouTube’s changes follow moves from Facebook to prohibit not only white supremacy, but also white nationalism and white separatism.

The two services, which allow people to create and upload their own materials, have faced considerable backlash about offensive videos on their services — and for how long they allowed live video feeds to stay online, such as during the mosque shooting in Christchurch, New Zealand.

The companies have said they are walking the balance between creating safe spaces while also protecting freedom of expression.

With little government oversight on online material, Internet companies have become the arbiters for what is and isn’t allowed. The policies don’t always fall into clean, delineated lines. YouTube is facing controversy over its refusal to remove videos from conservative commentator Steven Crowder, in which he uses homophobic slurs to describe Vox reporter Carlos Maza. YouTube said Crowder hasn’t told people to harass Maza, and the primary point of his video is to offer opinion, and thus it didn’t violate YouTube’s anti-harassment policies. Criticism of the decision has poured out online. YouTube later said it had removed Crowder’s ability to make money on YouTube.

TODAY’S WORDS
今日單字

1. hate speech phr.

仇恨言論

(chou2 hen4 yan2 lun4)

2. white supremacy phr.

白人至上主義

(bai2 ren2 zhi4 shang4 zhu3 yi4)

3. neo-Nazi adj.

新納粹主義的

(xin1 na4 zui4 zhu3 yi4 de5)

4. extremism n.

極端主義

(ji2 duan1 zhu3 yi4)

5. race n.

種族(zhong3 zu2)

6. sexual orientation phr.

性傾向

(xing4 qing1 xiang4)

7. white nationalism phr.

白人民族主義

(bai2 ren2 min2 zu2 zhu3 yi4)

8. white separatism phr.

白人分離主義

(bai2 ren2 fen1 li2 zhu3 yi4)

9. freedom of expression phr.

言論自由

(yan2 lun4 zi4 you2)


(AP)

YouTube六月五日更新了有關仇恨言論的規定,以禁止含有白人至上主義和新納粹主義意涵的影片。

該影音串流媒體公司表示,他們已降低此類影片被搜尋到和曝光的機會,但他們現正著手徹底刪除這些影片。YouTube所禁止的還包括對某些確實發生過的事──例如大屠殺──加以否認的影片。

YouTube、Facebook(臉書)、Twitter(推特)和其他線上服務平台面臨越來越多的疑慮,擔憂這些平台允許──某些情況甚至是助長了極端主義。YouTube 也因此做出這改變。

YouTube 的新規定立即生效。具體來說,它禁止影片「聲稱某一群體的優越,而將歧視、隔離或排斥合理化」。該禁令適用的範圍也包括對種族、性傾向和退伍軍人的歧視。

Google(谷歌)旗下的 YouTube 表示,該公司正著手刪除數千個違反新規定的頻道。

YouTube 的改變是跟隨 Facebook 的腳步,不光是禁止白人至上主義,還禁止白人民族主義和白人分離主義。

Facebook 和 YouTube 皆可讓人自己創建和上傳影音,這兩家公司也因此面臨大量強烈批評──由於這些影音的攻擊性內容,以及對直播影片可在線上保留多久的爭議,例如紐西蘭基督城清真寺槍擊案的直播。

Facebook 和 YouTube 表示,他們在創造安全網路空間和保護言論自由之間尋求平衡。

由於政府對網路資訊的監督很少,因此網路公司成了仲裁者,決定什麼可以、什麼不可以,而這些規定卻不總是界線分明的。YouTube 因拒絕刪除保守派評論者史蒂芬‧克勞德的影片而面臨爭議──克勞德在影片中用恐同的誹謗話語來形容美國網路媒體 Vox 的記者卡洛斯‧馬薩。YouTube 表示克勞德並未唆使他人去騷擾馬薩,克勞德的影片主要是在表達意見,因此沒有違反 YouTube 的反騷擾規定。對於 YouTube 這個決定,網路上湧現大量批評。後來 YouTube 表示,該公司已取消了克勞德在 YouTube 上賺錢的權限。

(台北時報林俐凱編譯)

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