Studies have shown that wolves and dogs, when still young, are quite similar even now, after many generations of evolution. They both exhibit the same playful behavior, for example, and wolf pups are known to bark like dogs. However, when wolves mature, they become aloof, suspicious and fierce, and totally unsuited to a domestic environment.
The domestic dog we now share our homes with evolved from the wolf. Some say that humans domesticated the wolf, in a process that likely started somewhere between 20,000 and 15,000 years ago. It is also quite possible that this happened more through a symbiotic relationship and mutual reliance that changed the way humans evolved, too. Perhaps dogs domesticated humans.
To a degree, human society has successfully removed us from the dictates of the survival of the fittest in the wild. Back then, humans would have been competing with wolves for food. Indeed, humans did compete with carnivores, making sabre-tooth tigers and giant hyenas extinct in Europe, for example.
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Humans were already efficient hunters, and wouldn’t have needed wolves. However, hunters accompanied by dogs would have had an advantage over those hunting without. Dogs would also have served as sentries, barking at the approach of strangers or predators.
While the exact mechanism by which humans and the dog began to cooperate is down to pure guesswork, one idea is that wolves approached human settlements first, and the more friendly, less aggressive ones were allowed to get close, and stayed when they were offered food to eat. Over several generations, that more friendly trait would have been reinforced through interbreeding among the dogs in the settlements, which were necessarily more genetically predisposed to being friendly. Changes happened not only to their appearance or their biology — such as evolving, with humans, the ability to process starch in their diets — but to their psychology, as well. These protodogs evolved the ability to read human gestures and to understand certain commands, which would have been an advantage in hunting.
Over time, humans became reliant on their presence. You could even say that dogs had a huge impact on human development, or even served as a catalyst for our civilization.
(Paul Cooper, Taipei Times)
兇猛 (xiong1 meng3)
馴養；馴化 (xun2 yang3; xun2 hua4)
survival of the fittest phr.
適者生存 (shi4 zhe3 sheng1 cun2)
肉食動物 (rou4 shi2 dong4 wu4)
混種繁殖 (hun4 zhong3 fan2 zhi2)
Three adopted Japanese shibas — eight-year-old male Hero, three-year-old female Wish and the latest addition to the family in 2017, a male named Tiger — are the main protagonists of a Facebook page created by their owner, called Hero&Wish, which has over 5,000 followers. Tiger was originally a stray, although it is unclear what caused him to be homeless. Fortunately, he tramped onto a school campus in southern Taiwan. While classes were underway, the forlorn sound of feeble footsteps reverberated in the corridor outside. A teacher went out to investigate and discovered Tiger, with an astonishing trail of bloody paw prints
A: It’s difficult to know what we will need for a two-week quarantine. So far I’ve ordered bread, vegetables, meat — and a large box of Korean-style spicy instant noodles. B: Um, if we have a fever, we will want to eat plain food, like rice porridge or chicken soup. A: That’s true. I’ll add a bag of rice to the order and we can make some chicken soup, divide it into individual portions and freeze it. A: 很難想得到我們隔離兩個星期會需要些什麼。到目前為止，我訂了麵包、蔬菜、肉類──還有一大盒韓式辣泡麵。 B: 呃，如果我們發燒的話，應該會想吃清淡的食物吧，像是稀飯或是雞湯。 A: 這倒是真的。我再加一袋米到訂單裡面好了，然後我們可以做一些雞湯，把它分裝以後拿去冷凍。 English 英文: Chinese 中文:
With billions of people around the world suddenly adjusting to social distancing measures as part of the battle to slow the spread of COVID-19, some professionals who are used to confinement have some tips. From astronauts to submariners, here are some practical ways to boost your well-being and stave off cabin fever during those weeks stuck at home. ‘Have a schedule’ Scott Kelly, a retired NASA astronaut, spent nearly a year aboard the International Space Station. He told AFP that mindset was crucial. “People need to have the right expectation, we don’t know when this is gonna be
A : I just got off the phone to my boss. She asked me to self-quarantine for 14 days. Well, I guess we’ll be holed up in this apartment for the next two weeks. B : First things first. We had better go to the supermarket and stock up on food. A : But we can’t go outside. B : I know a supermarket that provides home delivery on orders over NT$2,000. Problem solved! A : 我剛剛跟老闆通過電話。她要我居家隔離十四天。唉，我想我們接下來的兩個星期都要躲在這個公寓裡面了。 B : 事情有輕重緩急，我們最好先去超市囤積食物。 A : 但是我們不能出門耶。 B : 我知道一間超市會提供送貨到家的服務，只要購物超過新台幣兩千元以上就行。問題解決了！ English 英文: Chinese 中文: