Sat, Jan 13, 2018 - Page 14 News List

Bosnian Serbs observe Christmas as ancient ritual
波士尼亞的塞爾維亞人 遵古老習俗過聖誕節

Bosnian Serb women, seen through flames, attend a ceremonial burning of dried oak branches during the Orthodox Christmas eve religious service at the Orthodox church in the Bosnian capital, in Sarajevo, Bosnia on Jan. 6.
熊熊火光後的幾位塞爾維亞女子,在波士尼亞首都塞拉耶佛東正教堂舉行的東正教聖誕夜禮拜中,參與燃燒乾橡樹枝儀式。攝於一月六日。

Photo: AP
照片:美聯社

For the Stanar family, Bosnian Serbs who are Orthodox Christians, Christmas preparations are a ritual to be handled with an obsession to detail. Novica Stanar, 65, observes ancient customs in hopes of passing them on to his grandchildren. A poem is read to the oak that will serve as the family’s Christmas tree before Stanar cuts it down. The children throw wheat seeds on the spot to show further respect for the tree. Like many other Orthodox Christians around the world, Serbs observe holidays according to the Julian calendar instead of the Gregorian calendar adopted during the 16th century. That means they celebrate Christmas on Jan. 7 instead of Dec. 25.

In Sarajevo, Bosnia’s capital, Serbs gathered in the Old Orthodox Church on Christmas Eve for a religious service and then stood around a fire built with dried oak branches. Some families sacrifice sheep and pigs for the traditional Christmas meal.

The four major religions represented in Bosnia — Catholic, Orthodox Christian, Islam and Judaism — are observed in Sarajevo despite the brutal 1992-95 war remembered for the ethnic and sectarian violence between Orthodox Serbs, Catholic Croats and Bosnian Muslims. In the capital and villages of Republika Srpska, the Bosnian entity that is inhabited mostly by Serbs, residents took part in ceremonial horseback parades.

On Christmas Day, children scrambled to break the Christmas bread and to find the golden coin traditionally hidden inside.

(AP)

身為波士尼亞境內信奉東正教的塞爾維亞人,斯塔納一家人將聖誕節的準備過程視為一種儀式,對於過程中種種細節的要求近乎執著。六十五歲的諾維卡‧斯塔納虔誠奉行這些源遠流長的習俗,以期能夠傳承給孫輩。在斯塔納砍下一棵橡樹作為家中的聖誕樹之前,他們先會對這棵橡樹朗誦詩歌;砍樹時,小孩子會灑下小麥種子,向這棵樹表示更深刻的敬意。如同世界各地其他眾多的東正教徒,塞爾維亞人根據儒略曆恪守節慶,而非根據十六世紀後才獲採用的公曆。也就是說,他們在一月七日過聖誕節,而不是十二月二十五日。

在波士尼亞首都塞拉耶佛,塞爾維亞人在聖誕夜聚集到舊東正教教堂參加禮拜,隨後站在乾橡木樹枝升起的火堆周圍。有些家庭則獻上綿羊或豬,作為傳統的聖誕節佳餚。

儘管在一九九二年到一九九五年之間,信奉東正教的塞爾維亞人、天主教的克羅埃西亞人,以及波士尼亞境內的穆斯林彼此間曾經發生過殘忍的戰爭,其間殘酷的種族迫害與宗派暴力至今還留在許多人的腦海中,但今日仍然能在塞拉耶佛看到代表波士尼亞的四大宗教──天主教、東正教、伊斯蘭教,以及猶太教。

塞族共和國是波士尼亞境內的另一個政治實體,主要人口為塞爾維亞人──其首都與村莊的居民們則參加充滿儀式性的騎馬遊行。

在聖誕節當天,孩子們爭相剝開聖誕麵包,希望能夠找到依傳統習俗藏在麵包裡的金幣。

(台北時報章厚明譯)

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