Cases of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever have both increased this year. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) last week said that this year so far there have been seven confirmed cases of typhoid fever, two of which were indigenous. Five of the cases came from outside the country. All four confirmed cases of paratyphoid fever were imported.
CDC Deputy Director-General Chou Jih-haw says that typhoid and paratyphoid are at an all-time high when compared to the number of cases in the same period over the past three years. People are reminded to avoid uncooked foods and street vendor foods when traveling to other countries, Chou says, adding that drinking water should be boiled first, or you should buy bottled mineral water. You should maintain good hygiene to avoid catching typhoid, he says.
Three of the five confirmed cases of imported typhoid were foreign workers, while two of them were Taiwanese students. The countries where they got infected include Indonesia, the Philippines and Pakistan. The countries of origin for the four confirmed imported cases of paratyphoid include Cambodia, Nepal and Myanmar.
Typhoid and paratyphoid are transmitted primarily through the fecal-oral route, Chou says. The CDC classifies typhoid fever as a type-two communicable disease, Chou says, adding that the disease’s incubation period is approximately eight to 14 days (can be up to 60 days), and is usually transmitted in areas with poor hygienic conditions.
The main routes of transmission include uncooked or undercooked food, or coming into contact with food or water contaminated by fecal matter from people carrying the bacteria or with the disease. Common symptoms include recurrent fever, headaches, malaise, nausea, rose spots, abdominal pains, and constipation or diarrhea. The incubation period for paratyphoid is one to 10 days. The routes of transmission are similar to typhoid, while the symptoms are less severe.
(Liberty Times, Translated by Kyle Jeffcoat)
1. indigenous adj.
本土的 (ben2 tu3 de5)
例: Indigenous peoples demand protection of their land rights.
2. hygiene n.
衛生 (wei4 sheng1)
例: Good dental hygiene is good for overall health.
3. recurrent adj.
持續性的；重複的；週期性的 (chi2 xu4 xing4 de5; chong2 fu4 de5; zhou1 qi2 xing4 de5)
例: Mandy has a recurrent urinary tract infection.