Wed, Dec 12, 2012 - Page 11 News List

Second-hand smoke can cause weight gain: study
多吸二手菸 真的會變胖

A patient at a medical clinic lights a cigarette in Wise, Virginia on July 20.
一位病人七月二十日於維吉尼亞州淮斯鎮點菸。

Warning: Smoking can damage your health.抽菸有害健康

Photo: AFP
照片:法新社

A recent study shows that diet and the amount of exercise you get are not the only factors that can affect weight — breathing second-hand smoke also increases your risk of gaining weight. The study, which included more than 6,300 adults, found that people with higher levels of cotinine — a metabolite of nicotine — in their body also tended to have a higher body mass index (BMI). In other words, people who breathe more second-hand smoke are statistically more prone to being overweight.

The results of the study were presented at the Endocrine Society’s annual meeting this year in Houston, Texas. Respondents in the study had all participated in the US’ National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006.

On top of using questionnaires to find out whether a person smokes, the researchers conducting the study also analyzed the level of cotinine in the blood, and then split the respondents into groups based on the data.

Among the respondents, 25 percent were categorized as addicts, or regular smokers, which meant that aside from admitting to be a smoker, their cotinine levels exceeded 3ng/ml. The 41 percent who said they did not smoke and had cotinine levels below 0.05ng/ml were grouped as nonsmokers, while the last group of 34 percent were categorized as second-hand smokers, meaning they did not admit being a smoker but had cotinine levels above 0.05ng/ml.

Cotinine has actually been detected in second-hand smokers in a number of past studies. Residual cotinine can remain in the body for as long as 10 to 14 hours.

After excluding factors that can influence weight, such as sex, age, drinking and exercise, the study not only found that people regularly exposed to second-hand smoke tend to have a higher BMI, they are also at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. People regularly exposed to second-hand smoke are also more prone to developing insulin resistance, as well as having higher levels of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and glycated hemoglobin.

TODAY’S WORDS 今日單字

1. diet n.

飲食 (yin3 shi2)

例: What does your daily diet consist of?

(你每天飲食包含什麼?)

2. smoker n.

吸菸者 (xi1 yan1 zhe3)

例: Are you a smoker or a non-smoker?

(你吸菸不吸菸?)

3. hazardous adj.

有害的 (you3 hai4 de5)

例: Despite the general awareness that smoking is hazardous to one’s health, nearly a fifth of the world’s population are smokers.

(即使一般人知道抽菸有害健康,還是有近五分一世界人口抽菸。)


What else can you do to keep hazardous second-hand smoke out of your body aside from simply avoiding second-hand smoke environments? Wu Ying-rong, the chief executive of the Nutrition Foundation of Taiwan, says that if you would like to decrease the amount of harmful oxidation in your body caused by the free radicals from cigarette smoke, which can in turn cause chronic inflammations, you should increase your intake of fruits and vegetables rich in anti-oxidants.

(Liberty Times, Translated by Kyle Jeffcoat)

肥胖除了跟飲食、運動量有關,有研究發現,吸二手菸也可能會提高肥胖風險!

這項研究共追蹤逾六千三百名成人,結果發現,在同樣都自認不吸菸的受試者中,體內尼古丁代謝物濃度高的人,用來評估肥胖與否的身體質量指數(BMI)也會相對比較高。換句話說,從統計上來看,多吸二手菸真的也會讓人變得肥胖!

這項研究在今年於美國休士頓舉行的內分泌醫學年會中發表,受試者是在二00一年到二00六年參與美國全國健康和營養調查。

研究人員除了以問卷詢問受試者是否吸菸,同時也分析受試者血液中的尼古丁代謝物「可體丁(cotinine)」濃度,然後進行分組。

其中,百分之二十五受試者為癮君子,這些人除了自認有吸菸,且血中可體丁濃度超過3ng/ml。另外,百分之四十一受試者被歸類為非吸菸者,這些人除了自認不吸菸之外,血中的可體丁濃度低於0.05ng/ml。最後被歸入二手菸暴露組總共百分之三十四,他們雖然表示自己不吸菸,但血中的可體丁濃度高於0.05ng/ml。

可體丁是尼古丁代謝物,過去許多研究顯示,可體丁可在吸二手菸者體液中測出,殘餘物在體內可存留十到四十小時之久。

分析發現,排除包括性別、年齡、喝酒及運動等其他可能影響因素後,暴露在二手菸環境中的受試者,不僅身體質量指數(BMI)比沒有接觸二手菸的人來得高,連罹患第二型糖尿病的比率也比較高。另外,接觸二手菸的人胰島素抗阻現象較為嚴重,空腹血糖值、糖化血色素數值也都偏高。

除了遠離二手菸環境外,要如何將入侵身體的二手菸毒排出呢?台灣營養基金會執行長吳映蓉指出,若是要減少抽菸產生自由基對身體造成的氧化傷害,導致慢性發炎反應,不妨多攝取富含抗氧化物的新鮮蔬果。

(自由時報記者洪素卿)

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