A radar map of the Martian north pole reveals a four-layer ice structure laid down over a period of five million years. The ice structure is on top of sedimentary rocks hundreds of kilometers thick, scientists said earlier this month in a report.
The data was provided by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. It provides ground-breaking insight into the formation of the Martian ice cap and the “thermal history” of the red planet, said Roger Phillips of Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, US.
Researchers found that the polar cap is formed by up to four layers of ice rich in sand and dust, separated by clearer sheets of ice. They believe the structure of the polar cap is the result of variations in Mars’ orbit over the years. One Martian year equals 1.88 Earth years.
The ice layers were accumulated over a period of about five million Earth years, said the scientists in a paper published in Science.
The radar images also show that the underlying sedimentary rocks have not been deformed by the enormous weight of the ice cap, suggesting that the Martian crust in the area is more than 300km thick.
The radar mapping of the polar cap also allows scientists to track the movement of dust over the Martian landscape over the years, researchers said.
The Martian north pole is part of a vast sedimentary plain built up over more than three billion years from ice erosion deposits, dust, volcanic lava and other sundry materials.
1. radar n.
雷達 (lei2 da2)
例: Radar uses radio waves to detect distant objects.
2. sedimentary rock n.
沉積岩 (chen2 ji1 yan2)
例: Sedimentary rock is formed from consolidated clay.
3. deform v.t./v.i.
使變形 (shi3 bian4 xing2)
例: The terrible disease has caused him to deform.
4. sundry adj.
各種的 (ge4 zhong3 de5)
例: There are sundry items in that desk.
1. The layers of ice that contain a lot of sand and dust are...
a. separated by liquid water.
b. separated by dirt.
c. separated by ice with less sand and dust.
2. The polar cap has been affected by...
a. changes in Mars’ orbit.
b. changes in the temperature of the sun.
c. changes in the composition of ice.
3. Studying the polar caps will help scientists...
a. to understand the movement of dust on Mars.
b. to understand what’s at the core of Mars.
c. to learn about alien life on Mars.
4. The ice layers took about ___ to form.
a. five million years
b. five billion years
c. The article doesn’t say.
Something thats ground-breaking provides important new information about a subject. For example, “The ground-breaking research will be used to improve the next generation of computers,” or “The ground-breaking results will make scientists think differently about the subject.”
Something that’s ground-breaking breaks new ground. For example, “They broke new ground with their latest analysis. It’ll take years before the implications are fully understood.”
「ground-breaking」是形容詞，動詞可以用「break new ground」，例如：「他們的最新分析提供了新的見解，但要徹底了解所隱含的意義還要好幾年的時間」。
Caleb: What’s troubling you?
Elijah: Last night I went home smelling like perfume, and today my wife found a receipt for flowers. I’m really on thin ice.
Caleb: Well it sounds like you deserve to get into trouble.
Elijah: But I went to a perfume store to get my wife a present to celebrate our upcoming anniversary, and I got the flowers for my secretary for Secretary’s Day.
Caleb: That’s tough luck.
on thin ice 處境危險
To be on thin ice is to be in an uncertain state that could end up bringing trouble. For example, “Arianna is on thin ice with Mom because of her bad report card.”
「on thin ice」的意思就是處在一個可能會惹上麻煩的不確定狀況，例如：「雅莉安娜因為成績不理想，所以怕老媽會不高興」。
They may have had a reputation for trade, braids and fearsome raids, but the Vikings were far from a single group of flaxen-haired, sea-faring Scandinavians. A genetic study of Viking-age human remains has not only confirmed that Vikings from different parts of Scandinavia set sail for different parts of the world, but has revealed that dark hair was more common among Vikings than Danes today. What’s more, while some were born Vikings, others adopted the culture — or perhaps had it thrust upon them. “Vikings were not restricted to blond Scandinavians,” said Eske Willerslev, a co-author of the research from
Let’s dine out tonight (5/5) 今晚我們去餐廳吃飯吧（五） A: I can’t believe we ordered the hottest curry on the menu by mistake. I’m such a dunderhead: I should have checked with the waiter first. B: Never mind, the mango lassi the waiter gave us on the house really did the trick: my mouth has cooled down now. A: Why don’t you finish off the remainder of the lamb rogan josh — it’s the mildest of all the curries we ordered. I’ll polish off the beef vindaloo. Waste not, want not. B: Are you sure that’s wise? I might have to take you home in an ambulance. A: 真不敢相信我們竟然不小心點到菜單上最辣的一道咖哩。我真是個笨蛋：我應該先跟服務生確認的。 B: 沒關係，服務生送我們餐廳招待的芒果優格真的發揮魔力了：我的嘴巴現在冷卻下來囉。 A: 你要不要把剩下的喀什米爾羊肉咖哩吃完──這道是我們點的咖哩菜肴裡最溫和的。我會快速掃完辛辣香料牛肉咖哩。不浪費才能不虞匱乏。 B: 你確定這樣是明智之舉嗎？我搞不好要叫救護車載你回家哦。 （Edward
The 31th Golden Melody Awards ceremony is scheduled for Saturday at the new Taipei Music Center. Singer Abao’s album Kinakaian (Mother Tongue) leads this year’s nominees with eight nods. The Aboriginal singer of the Paiwan people debuted as the duo Abao & Brandy in 2003, and won two Golden Melody Awards with their first album the next year. She has been promoting Aboriginal music since going solo. The six nominees for Best Album in Mandarin include: Joanna Wang’s Love Is Calling Me, G.E.M.’s City Zoo, Peggy Hsu’s Hypnocity, Sandee Chan’s Juvenile A, Waa Wei’s Hidden, Not Forgotten, and Greeny Wu’s Spaceman.
A: Here’s the meat section. How about some ribeye steak? B: Is ribeye your favorite cut? A: Yep. It has the perfect ratio of marbled fat to lean meat and a delicious flavor. B: You’re such a foodie! Australian or American? A: Australian: their cows are grass-fed, instead of grain-fed, which gives the meat a nicer flavor. B: OK, I’m sold. Let’s also go local with some wild boar sausages and pig’s blood cake. A: 這裡是肉品區，要不要買一些肋眼牛排？ B: 肋眼是你最喜歡的部位嗎？ A: 沒錯，肋眼大理石般的油花跟瘦肉比例完美，還有可口的風味。 B: 你真是個吃貨！要選澳洲牛還是美國牛？ A: 澳洲牛︰因為澳洲主要是草飼牛，而不是穀飼的，這讓肉的風味更好。 B: 好哦，我被你說服了。我們也買點本地產品吧，像是山豬肉香腸跟豬血糕。 (Edward Jones, Taipei Times / 台北時報章厚明譯) English 英文: Chinese 中文: