Mon, Feb 25, 2019 - Page 7 News List

Northern Red Sea coral reefs might survive a hot, grim future

By Alon Bernstein and Isabel Debr  /  AP, EILAT, Israel

As the outlook for coral reefs across a warming planet grows grimmer, scientists in Israel have discovered a rare glimmer of hope: The corals of the northern Red Sea might survive, and even thrive, into the next century.

There is broad scientific consensus that the effects of climate change have devastated the world’s reefs, ravaging large swaths of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia.

The carbon dioxide that humans pump into the atmosphere spikes the temperature and acidity of seawater, which both poisons the marine invertebrates and hampers their growth at alarming rates, according to studies published last year in the journal Science.

Experts estimate that half of the corals that existed in the early 20th century have died.

However, the corals at the northernmost tip of the Red Sea are exhibiting remarkable resistance to the rising water temperatures and acidification, according to research conducted by the Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences based in Eilat, Israel. Experts hope the lessons learned in the Red Sea can help coral reefs elsewhere in the world.

“Corals worldwide are dying and suffering at a rapid pace, but we have not witnessed a single bleaching event in the Gulf of Aqaba,” said Maoz Fine, an expert on coral reefs at Bar-Ilan University and director of the research.

Warmer water causes corals to eject the brightly colored plants that serve as their primary food and oxygen source. This causes reefs to “bleach,” or take on a bone-white pallor that often portends mass mortality.

While other hardy coral species can be found in the Indian and Pacific oceans, “there’s nowhere else in the world that reefs are this far away from their bleaching thresholds,” Fine said.

Plenty of other refuges remain unknown, but “this is the only spot we know of with a warranty ensuring these reefs stay safe for the next several decades,” he said.

On a recent day at the lab, Fine examined coral fragments in water treated to simulate global warming scenarios, pointing to their ruddy color as a sign of good health.

The Gulf of Aqaba has become a refuge for tough corals that are projected to outlast far worse conditions.

Fine’s latest study, published this month in the Journal of Experimental Biology, found further cause for optimism: The coral species’ thermal resistance carries over to their offspring, indicating that future generations will also remain immune to bleaching, with implications that could extend beyond this spot of the Red Sea.

Fine’s research credits northern Red Sea coral resilience to a giant natural selection event that occurred about 18,000 years ago. As glaciers retreated at the end of the last ice age, reefs moved in to recolonize the southern part of the sea, where temperatures ran exceedingly high.

Only corals that could bear the heat managed to reach maturity and migrate north, where they resettled in conditions several degrees cooler than their thermal threshold. Further research is under way to determine how existing in temperatures below their tolerance levels might lend corals physiological benefits.

“All corals were obliterated except for the best genotypes, the winners of the climate change lottery,” Fine said.

Today, these hardy corals continue to survive as Red Sea waters warm, only showing signs of heat stress at six degrees above the maximum sea temperature.

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