Tue, Jul 10, 2018 - Page 9 News List

Tourism in India is booming — so why is everyone so worried?

India’s burgeoning middle class is discovering its own country, leaving cash — and trash — in remote destinations

By Adam Popescu  /  Bloomberg

Illustration: Yusha

The travel habits of Chinese are changing the world. Taking about 145 million overseas trips a year, China’s middle class is moving — and spending — more than that of any other nation: In 2016, they accounted for US$261 billion overseas, one-fifth of all sales by international tourists, the UN World Tourism Organization said.

To the south, India’s own swelling, moneyed middle class — 250 million smartphone-toting young professionals out of a population of 1.3 billion — is starting to emulate its regional rival. In less than 10 years, the World Travel and Tourism Council expects India to become the fourth-largest travel and tourism economy behind China, the US and Germany.

Although more people are visiting India than ever before — two decades ago about 2.4 million international tourists came to India a year; last year, there were five times that — the real boost is coming from domestic travel.

Almost 90 percent of travelers in India are Indians. For the past three years, their most popular destination has been the southernmost state of Tamil Nadu, thanks to pilgrims eager to visit its many temples.

Tourism in the subcontinent last year generated more than US$230 billion, up from almost US$209 billion in 2016.

The vast country offers myriad options: 36 world heritage sites and 103 national parks, plus the Taj Mahal in Agra, Rajasthan’s hill forts, the holy city of Varanasi, and everything else in between the mountains of the Himalayas and the beaches of Goa. Add in its jungles with tigers, elephants and the last of Asia’s lions, and no other country is better suited to take advantage of an adventure travel market that is expected to grow to US$1.3 billion by 2023.

“Indians are discovering their own country,” said Ahmed Chamanwala, founder of Fringe Ford, a five-room lodge in Kerala state, which sits on a 213 hectare forest home to more than 400 kinds of animals. “In our initial years, most of our tourists were inbound travelers, but over the years, we have seen an increase in the domestic weekend travelers from the major cities in India. Now the business is more dependent on the Indian market.”

THE PARADOX

However, as Venice, Barcelona and Dubrovnik have learned, unchecked growth can threaten stakeholders in the fragile places supported by the surge in visitors.

In India, steered by government subsidies and tax incentives, five regional budget airlines debuted 100 far-flung routes last year, helping fuel Indians’ desire to explore.

The country’s natural beauty is part of its marketing campaign and wildlife is a huge draw, but one concern being discussed in hushed tones is that the country’s weak infrastructure and stretched bureaucracy could allow certain areas to lose what makes them special before they ever reach their potential, Chamanwala said.

In some areas, tiger reserves no longer have tigers and nature safaris can feel like crowded parking lots, where there are more shutterbugs than subjects to shoot.

Fringe Ford is already taking steps to limit tourism’s effect.

The resort, sitting on an old tea plantation that has been reclaimed by the forest, is staffed with locals to keep the community involved as stakeholders.

Chamanwala plans to invest in adjacent plots to create a buffer that will encourage forest growth and conservation.

“Keeping the footprint to a bare minimum” is a must, he said, adding that he invests a portion of his profits into conservation on the property.

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