By 2050, Asia will have more than 5 billion people, while the EU’s share of the global population will decline from 9 percent to 5 percent. Annual economic growth in Asia over the past 30 years has averaged 5 percent. Its GDP is projected to increase from US$30 trillion to about US$230 trillion by 2050. The balance of power in the 21st century is shifting — in social, economic and, arguably, political terms — from West to East.
Western anxieties about a looming “Asian century” stem largely from the precedent of 20th century geopolitics, in which the West dominated less--developed nations. However, this dynamic is outdated and Asia would suffer as much as the West from any attempt to emulate the British and American empires of the 19th and 20th centuries.
As Asian economic growth has increased, consumption in the region has also risen. Multinational companies and Western countries — both of which stand to benefit greatly from Asia’s increasing consumption — have encouraged Asians to aspire to a Western standard of living, with its high energy usage, electronic toys and meat-heavy diet. Asian governments seem willing partners in this one-dimensional approach to development and are eager to lead global economic growth. Yet it is neither desirable nor possible for Asians to consume in the way that Westerners do and Asian governments should face up to this reality.
In previous centuries, Western economic growth was characterized by a comparatively insignificant minority having unfettered access to resources and it was therefore built on fueling consumption. This was, after all, the idea behind colonialism, which succeeded economically by underpricing resources or even obtaining them for free.
However, the planet simply cannot support 5 billion Asians consuming like Westerners. The Earth’s regenerative capacity was exceeded more than 30 years ago and we now use 30 percent more resources than the planet can sustain. Although we know this to be the case, the vast majority of Western economists and institutions continue to encourage China and India to consume more.
Asian governments must reject this trend, but, having been intellectually subservient for so long, it is not clear that they will. Western governments, for their part, must stop being intellectually dishonest. Indeed, they must openly acknowledge the impossibility of supporting demands for ever-higher material consumption in Asia without irreversibly changing our planet’s climate and resource pool. Trade relations are far less important than -establishing a dialogue between the West and Asia that addresses how to live within limits.
For example, Western leaders concerned about climate change must understand that economic instruments like emissions trading are not a panacea. For Asia, resource management must be at the center of policymaking, which may include Draconian regulations, and even bans. Otherwise, resource shortages will push up commodity prices and create crises in food, water, fisheries, forests, land use and housing, thereby leading to greater social injustice.
The West must help Asia to challenge the idea that -consumption-led growth is the only solution, or even a solution at all, and Asia must adopt three core principles to avert environmental and social crises. First, economic activity must be secondary to maintaining resources. Second, Asian governments must take action to reprice resources and focus on increasing their productivity. Third, Asian states must recast their central role as being to defend our collective welfare by protecting natural capital and the environment.
All of this implies that Asian governments will need to play a far greater role than officials in Europe or the US in managing both the macro economy and personal consumption choices, which will require very sensitive political choices regarding individual rights, as well as policies that powerful business interests — many of them Western — will resist.
Asian governments will sometimes need to set strict limits on resource use — and have the tools to ensure that society respects these limits. They should begin, for example, by stressing that car ownership is not a human right. The debate about rights must emphasize constraints, not the utopian definitions of Western politicians.
These policy options fly in the face of Western liberal--democratic orthodoxy, but Western policymakers should not react negatively to these sorts of policy choices made by Asian governments, nor misconstrue them as anticapitalist or antidemocratic.
The West must realize that its consumption-led economic system has exhausted the world’s resources and that it is not a viable option for most Asian countries, whose governments must employ different political methods to create more equitable societies.
Chandran Nair is the founder of the Global Institute For Tomorrow and co-founder and chair of Avantage Ventures, a social investment advisory firm based in Hong Kong.
Copyright: Project Syndicate
Taiwan’s status in the world community is experiencing something really different; it’s being treated like a normal country. And not just a “normal” country, more like a valuable, constructive, democratic and generous country. This is not simply an artifact of Taiwan’s successes in combatting the novel coronavirus. It is a new attitude, weighing Taiwan’s democracy against China’s lack of it. Before I continue, I should apologize to the readers of the Taipei Times. I have not visited Taipei since the opening of the American Institute in Taiwan’s new chancery building in Neihu last year, so I was unprepared for the photograph
On Sept. 27, 2002, the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (East Timor) joined the UN to become its 191st member. Since then, two other nations have joined, Montenegro on June 28, 2006, and South Sudan on July 14, 2011. The combined total of the populations of these three nations is just more than half that of Taiwan’s 23.7 million people. East Timor has 1.3 million, Montenegro has slightly more than half a million and South Sudan has 10.9 million. They all are members of the UN, yet much more populous Taiwan is denied membership. Of the three, East Timor, as a Southeast Asian
At a June 12 news conference held by the Talent Circulation Alliance to announce the release of its white paper for this year, President Tsai Ing-wen (蔡英文) emphasized that, in this era of globalization, Taiwan should focus on improving foreign language and digital abilities when cultivating talent, so that it stands out from global competitors. I suggest the government should consider building a professional translation industry. If the public believes that there is a relationship between learning English and national competitiveness, then the nation must consider the social cost of language education. This should be assessed to maximise educational effectiveness: Is
There have been media reports that the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) plans to hold military exercises in August to simulate seizing the Pratas Islands (Dongsha Islands, 東沙群島) in the South China Sea. In the past, only Coast Guard Administration (CGA) personnel have been stationed there, but the Ministry of National Defense has dispatched the Republic of China Marine Corps to the islands, nominally for “ex-situ training,” to prevent a Chinese attack under the guise of military drills. The move is only a temporary measure and not sufficiently proactive. Instead, the government should officially declare sovereignty over the islands and station troops