Traffic congestion is always a problem over the Lunar New Year holiday. The Ministry of Transportation and Communications has announced how it intends to address this, but there are few changes, for the highways at least, from last year. There will be toll-free travel from midnight until 7am, as well as incentives rewarding carpooling during this period. To reduce traffic through the Hsuehshan Tunnel, which comprises a section of Freeway No. 5, the National Freeway Bureau has said anyone taking the alternative Taipei-Yilan route (Provincial Highway No. 9) has a chance to win an iPad.
The government lacks a comprehensive, consistent and uniformly applied public transportation policy, and public modes of transportation account for only 20 to 30 percent of intercity travel. Even between major urban areas and peripheral regions, such as between Taipei and Taoyuan, or Greater Taichung and Changhua, fewer than one in five people travel by public transport. It’s the same even in metropolitan areas with mass rapid transport systems. In the greater Taipei area, less than one-third of people commute by public transport, despite the MRT system.
These numbers fall far short of the targets in other developed countries, which aim for at least 60 percent utilization. Given their emphasis on green issues and environmental protection, these countries have prioritized the development of an effective public transport policy. Japan and Hong Kong managed this many years ago and now boast usage rates of 80 percent and more. In South Korea, the figure is 65 percent.
To achieve this, the ministry and the governments of all five special municipalities need to work together to create quality public transportation — convenient to use, but also green. By “quality,” I mean one in which spatial and temporal uncertainties of the journeys are reduced to a minimum, based around some form of main line, such as an MRT or a tram or bus network. It is important that this core system be seamless and reliable, with good connections to other branch lines, organized in an intuitive way. The system has to be quick, with frequent services, enabling passengers to control the time a given journey takes.
A passenger-centered, green transportation policy requires rewarding the use of public transport and controlling the use of private vehicles.
Given that we cannot reduce the number of people traveling on National Highway No. 5, the intercity link between Taipei and Yilan, over the holiday, we need to reduce the amount of vehicles on the roads. The government could increase the cost of using private cars, while providing more public transportation and reducing ticket prices, as well as providing free shuttle buses and transfer services, to make it quite evident that public transportation has clear advantages. This is the only way it can entice people to start using public transport, albeit gradually.
For this Lunar New Year, the government should announce that only vehicles whose registration plate numbers end in an odd number will be allowed on the road on odd-numbered days, while those ending in an even number will be allowed on even-numbered days. This will encourage people to plan their journeys in advance and cut the amount of traffic during rush hour. In future Lunar New Year holidays and long weekends, the government should consider abolishing nighttime toll exemptions and implement disincentives for using private cars during peak times, like increasing toll charges during these hours. Any resultant increase in revenue can be put into a fund earmarked for improvements to public transport.