Sun, Jul 20, 2014 - Page 14 News List

N Korea pushes farmers as modernization inches forward

Farmers face an uphill struggle against land erosion and infertile soil to fulfill Kim Jon-un’s vow to eradicate famine, but the spread of techniques like organic fertilization is helping crops flourish

By Eric Talmadge  /  AP, CHANGPYONG RI, North Korea

Rim Ok-hua looks out over her patch of farm just across the Tumen River from China, where rows of lush, green young potato plants stretch into the distance.

As North Korean farmers go, Rim is exceptionally lucky. The Changpyong Cooperative Farm where she works is mechanized, has 500 pigs to provide fertilizer and uses the best available seeds, originally brought in from Switzerland. In most fields throughout the country, farmers work the fields by hand, or behind bony oxen.

However, this year — even more than most — they are under pressure to feed a hungry nation.

North Korean leader Kim Jong-un has succeeded in establishing his country as a nuclear power and even sent a satellite into orbit. Now, with prolonged international sanctions and largesse from former communist allies mostly gone, Kim is calling on farmers to win him another battle. In 2012, and again this year, he promised the nation it would never face famine again.

Yet can isolated and impoverished North Korea ever escape the ghosts of famines past? For more than four decades, farming in the North was characterized by heavy use of mechanization swiftly followed by chronic fuel and equipment shortages and stopgap policies. That legacy has left its mark not only on the nation’s psyche, but on its countryside.

Hillsides denuded of trees for terraced farming plots produce little, but increase the risk of damage from erosion or landslides. Goats, which are everywhere after a mass goat breeding campaign in 1996, eat their way into hillside shrubs, which makes the landslide problem even worse. Overuse of chemical fertilizers has trashed soil fertility in many areas.

North Korea has struggled to obtain tractor fuel for more than two decades. Housewives, college students and workers brought in from the cities, along with military units, make up for the lack of mechanization at crucial times.

There are many less tangible problems: state-controlled distribution, top-down planning and a quota system that does not fully encourage innovation and individual effort. All these factors make North Korea’s agricultural sector a very fragile ecosystem.

Almost as soon as this season’s rice was transplanted, the Korean Central News Agency reported that tens of thousands of hectares of farmland had already been damaged by drought.

Even so, the country is by no means an agricultural lost cause.

As the summer growing months approach, the North Korean countryside is bursting with the bright greens of young rice, corn, soybeans and cabbage. On hillier ground lie orchards for apples and pears. Whole villages are devoted to growing mushrooms — another “magic bullet” innovation from the 1990s. It seems that every valley and flatland, nook and cranny, has been turned into a farming plot.

To North Korea’s leaders, agricultural self-sufficiency is as much a key to the nation’s survival as nuclear weapons are to keeping its foes at bay. North Korea needed massive international aid during the devastating famine of the 1990s.

There are some signs of improvement. The combined overall crop production for this year and the last is expected to increase by 5 percent to 5.98 million tonnes, according to a joint report compiled by the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization and World Food Program. The report, released in November last year, estimated that the North would still need to import 340,000 tonnes of cereals.

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