It is the king of sushi, one of the most expensive fish in the world and dwindling so rapidly that some fear it could vanish from restaurant menus within a generation.
Yet there is little alarm in Japan, the country that consumes about 80 percent of the world’s bluefin tuna. Japanese fisheries experts blame cozy ties between regulators and fishermen and a complacent media for failing to raise public awareness.
“Nobody really knows the bad state bluefin tuna is in,” veteran sushi chef Kazuo Nagayama said from his top-end sushi bar in Tokyo’s Shimbashi District. “I don’t think it’ll disappear, but we might not be able to catch any. It’s obvious we need to set quotas.”
Catching bluefin tuna, called hon-maguro in Japan, is a lucrative business. A single full-grown specimen can sell for ￥2 million (US$22,000) at Tokyo’s Tsukiji Fish Market. Japanese fishermen are vying with their South Korean, Taiwanese and Mexican counterparts for a piece of a US$900 million a year wholesale market.
Fish dealers at Tsukiji Market say the number of bluefin sold at early morning auctions has fallen over the past 10 to 15 years, but most are confident the supply will never run out. Sushi bars and supermarkets still readily sell the fish, which is considered a special treat that families might splurge on once a month. There is no government campaign to encourage people to rein in their appetites for the iconic Japanese food.
A scientific assessment released in January found that Pacific bluefin spawning stocks have plummeted by about three-quarters over the past 15 years to match historic lows last seen in the early 1980s. It estimated that the species has dwindled to just 3.6 percent of its original population and that more than 90 percent of fish caught were between the ages of 0 and 3, before they reach reproductive maturity.
The report, compiled by the International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-like Species in the Northern Pacific and based on data through 2010, received scant coverage in the Japanese press.
The Yomiuri Shimbun, Japan’s largest newspaper, ran a brief story that ignored the drop in numbers and focused on a projection offered by the report’s authors that Pacific stocks could triple by 2030 if current “effort limits” were fully enforced — coverage that a senior Japanese Fisheries Agency of Japan (JFA) official blasted as “misleading.”
Reports earlier this year about the record ￥155.4 million sale of a Pacific bluefin at the Tsukiji Market focused on the exorbitant price and the buyer, saying little about the species’ falling numbers.
The drop follows similar plunges in the other two bluefin species, the Atlantic and the southern, which are now protected by catch quotas experts say need to be applied to their Pacific cousins.
Without stricter caps, “there is a high likelihood that Pacific bluefin will become less available to Japanese consumers,” said Masayuki Komatsu, a former senior agency official.
Japan has two choices, he said: impose catch quotas or “stop eating the bluefin to protect it.”
Overfishing of the Atlantic bluefin, much of it shipped to Japan, got so bad that an export ban was proposed in 2010 at a meeting of the 175-nation Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. The proposal was rejected and Atlantic bluefin stocks recovered slightly last year after quotas were imposed, although environmental groups say the population remains fragile.